Updated on 2024/06/26

写真a

 
KONDO Hideki
 
Organization
Institute of Plant Science and Resources Associate Professor
Position
Associate Professor
External link

Degree

  • M. Agriculture ( Okayama University )

Research Interests

  • 植物

  • 水平伝搬

  • ウイルス

  • ベクター

  • Insect virus

  • plant virus

  • mycovirus

  • phytopathology

  • evolution

  • RNAサイレンシング

  • 分子進化

  • ラブドウイルス

  • マイナス鎖RNAウイルス

  • endogenous virus-like element

Research Areas

  • Environmental Science/Agriculture Science / Plant protection science

  • Life Science / Applied molecular and cellular biology

Research History

  • -

    2014

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  • Assistant Professor, Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University   Institute of Plant Science and Resources

    2007 - 2014

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  • 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所 助手

    1993 - 2006

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Professional Memberships

Committee Memberships

  • 日本植物病理学会関西部会   事務幹事  

    2023.4 - 2024.3   

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  •   国際ウイルス分類委員会 ICTV Totiviridae Study Group  

    2021   

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  •   国際ウイルス分類委員会 ICTV Mymonaviridae Study Group  

    2021   

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  • 日本植物病理学会   原著編集委員  

    2020.1 - 2021.12   

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  • 日本植物病理学会   植物ウイルス分類委員会委員  

    2018   

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    Committee type:Academic society

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  • ICTV   Rhabdoviridae Study Group  

    2017   

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    Committee type:Academic society

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  • 植物ウイルス研究会   幹事(会計)  

    2017   

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  • Frontiers in Microbiology/ Frontiers in Plant Science   Review Editor  

    2017   

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Papers

  • The intriguing phenomenon of cross-kingdom infections of plant and insect viruses to fungi: Can other animal viruses also cross-infect fungi? International journal

    Ida Bagus Andika, Xinran Cao, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun

    PLoS pathogens   19 ( 10 )   e1011726   2023.10

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    Fungi are highly widespread and commonly colonize multicellular organisms that live in natural environments. Notably, studies on viruses infecting plant-associated fungi have revealed the interesting phenomenon of the cross-kingdom transmission of viruses and viroids from plants to fungi. This implies that fungi, in addition to absorbing water, nutrients, and other molecules from the host, can acquire intracellular parasites that reside in the host. These findings further suggest that fungi can serve as suitable alternative hosts for certain plant viruses and viroids. Given the frequent coinfection of fungi and viruses in humans/animals, the question of whether fungi can also acquire animal viruses and serve as their hosts is very intriguing. In fact, the transmission of viruses from insects to fungi has been observed. Furthermore, the common release of animal viruses into the extracellular space (viral shedding) could potentially facilitate their acquisition by fungi. Investigations of the cross-infection of animal viruses in fungi may provide new insights into the epidemiology of viral diseases in humans and animals.

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1011726

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  • Cross-Kingdom Interactions Between Plant and Fungal Viruses. International journal

    Ida Bagus Andika, Mengyuan Tian, Ruiling Bian, Xinran Cao, Ming Luo, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun

    Annual review of virology   2023.7

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    The large genetic and structural divergences between plants and fungi may hinder the transmission of viruses between these two kingdoms to some extent. However, recent accumulating evidence from virus phylogenetic analyses and the discovery of naturally occurring virus cross-infection suggest the occurrence of past and current transmissions of viruses between plants and plant-associated fungi. Moreover, artificial virus inoculation experiments showed that diverse plant viruses can multiply in fungi and vice versa. Thus, virus cross-infection between plants and fungi may play an important role in the spread, emergence, and evolution of both plant and fungal viruses and facilitate the interaction between them. In this review, we summarize current knowledge related to cross-kingdom virus infection in plants and fungi and further discuss the relevance of this new virological topic in the context of understanding virus spread and transmission in nature as well as developing control strategies for crop plant diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology, Volume 10 is September 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev-virology-111821-122539

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  • Discovery and Genome Characterization of a Closterovirus from Wheat Plants with Yellowing Leaf Symptoms in Japan

    Hideki Kondo, Hitomi Sugahara, Miki Fujita, Kiwamu Hyodo, Ida Bagus Andika, Hiroshi Hisano, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Pathogens   12 ( 3 )   358 - 358   2023.2

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    Many aphid-borne viruses are important pathogens that affect wheat crops worldwide. An aphid-transmitted closterovirus named wheat yellow leaf virus (WYLV) was found to have infected wheat plants in Japan in the 1970s; however, since then, its viral genome sequence and occurrence in the field have not been investigated. We observed yellowing leaves in the 2018/2019 winter wheat-growing season in an experimental field in Japan where WYLV was detected five decades ago. A virome analysis of those yellow leaf samples lead to the discovery of a closterovirus together with a luteovirus (barley yellow dwarf virus PAV variant IIIa). The complete genomic sequence of this closterovirus, named wheat closterovirus 1 isolate WL19a (WhCV1-WL19a), consisted of 15,452 nucleotides harboring nine open reading frames. Additionally, we identified another WhCV1 isolate, WL20, in a wheat sample from the winter wheat-growing season of 2019/2020. A transmission test indicated that WhCV1-WL20 was able to form typical filamentous particles and transmissible by oat bird-cherry aphid (Rhopalosiphum pad). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that WhCV1 was distantly related to members of the genus Closterovirus (family Closteroviridae), suggesting that the virus represents a novel species in the genus. Furthermore, the characterization of WhCV1-WL19a-derived small RNAs using high-throughput sequencing revealed highly abundant 22-nt-class small RNAs potentially derived from the 3′-terminal end of the WhCV1 negative-strand genomic RNA, indicating that this terminal end of the WhCV1 genome is likely particularly targeted for the synthesis of viral small RNAs in wheat plants. Our results provide further knowledge on closterovirus diversity and pathogenicity and suggest that the impact of WhCV1 on wheat production warrants further investigations.

    DOI: 10.3390/pathogens12030358

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  • Mycovirus Diversity and Evolution Revealed/Inferred from Recent Studies. International journal

    Hideki Kondo, Leticia Botella, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Annual review of phytopathology   2022.5

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    High-throughput virome analyses with various fungi, from cultured or uncultured sources, have led to the discovery of diverse viruses with unique genome structures and even neo-lifestyles. Examples in the former category include splipalmiviruses and ambiviruses. Splipalmiviruses, related to yeast narnaviruses, have multiple positive-sense (+) single-stranded (ss) RNA genomic segments that separately encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs, the hallmark of RNA viruses (members of the kingdom Orthornavirae). Ambiviruses appear to have an undivided ssRNA genome of 3∼5 kb with two large open reading frames (ORFs) separated by intergenic regions. Another narna-like virus group has two fully overlapping ORFs on both strands of a genomic segment that span more than 90% of the genome size. New virus lifestyles exhibited by mycoviruses include the yado-kari/yado-nushi nature characterized by the partnership between the (+)ssRNA yadokarivirus and an unrelated dsRNA virus (donor of the capsid for the former) and the hadaka nature of capsidless 10-11 segmented (+)ssRNA accessible by RNase in infected mycelial homogenates. Furthermore, dsRNA polymycoviruses with phylogenetic affinity to (+)ssRNA animal caliciviruses have been shown to be infectious as dsRNA-protein complexes or deproteinized naked dsRNA. Many previous phylogenetic gaps have been filled by recently discovered fungal and other viruses, which have provided interesting evolutionary insights. Phylogenetic analyses and the discovery of natural and experimental cross-kingdom infections suggest that horizontal virus transfer may have occurred and continue to occur between fungi and other kingdoms. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology, Volume 60 is August 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-021621-122122

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  • First Report of Chinese wheat mosaic virus Infecting Barley in Japan. International journal

    Hideki Kondo, Hidekazu Masejima, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Miki Fujita, Takehiro Ohki

    Plant disease   2022.1

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    Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV), a member of the genus Furovirus in the family Virgaviridae (Adams et al. 2017), has a positive-sense RNA genome and is transmitted by Polymyxa graminis. CWMV is a causal agent of yellow mosaic disease in winter wheat in China (Guo et al. 2019). CWMV has also been detected in wheat plants in limited areas of the northern Japan (Nagano and Iwate Prefectures) (Fuji et al. 2022; Maeshima et al. 2010; Shirako and Maejima 2008). In preliminary tests using Western blotting with an antiserum raised against CWMV capsid protein (by Dr Y. Shirako, Tokyo University), we detected a furovirus in a breeding line of barley, "Tozan Kawa 111" (Hordeum vulgare L.) (collected in April 2012), grown in an experimental field infested with CWMV and wheat yellow mosaic virus (genus Bymovirus) in Nagano Prefecture. To investigate the infection of barley plants with cereal plant-associated soil-borne viruses, we collected leaf samples of "Tozan Kawa 111" plants (ten plants) showing yellow mosaic symptoms, but with not apparent wilting or stunting (Fig. S1A) in April 2016 (2015/16 growing season). Total RNA was extracted from symptomatic leave samples with TaKaRa RNAiso reagent (TaKaRa Bio) and subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect virus agents. After cDNA synthesis using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with random hexamers, PCR amplification with QuickTaq HS Dye Mix (Toyobo Co.) was conducted using primer sets specific to two furoviruses and three bymoviruses (Fig. S1B) known to infect wheat and/or barley plants in Japan (Tamada and Kondo 2013). RT-PCR analysis detected infection with CWMV in the leaf samples of "Tozan Kawa 111" plants (Fig. S1B), but not the other soil-borne viruses tested. The amplified PCR products (752 and 718 bp for CWMV RNA1 and RNA2, respectively) were purified by Wizard® SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System (Promega) and subjected to Sanger sequencing to confirm their nucleotide sequences. The virus sequences from PCR amplicons were deposited in GenBank/DDBJ/ENA with accession numbers LC657081 (RNA1) and LC657082 (RNA2). Nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis showed that the sequences have 98.7% and 98.8% nucleotide sequence identity with RNA1 of CWMV Japanese northern isolate (accession No, AB299271) and RNA2 of CWMV Nagano-A isolate (AB935554), respectively. Identical sequences were also found in symptomatic wheat leaf samples ("Fukuho Komugi" cultivar) obtained from the same field (Fig. S1B). Rod-shaped particles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (Hitachi H-7650) in symptomatic "Tozan Kawa 111" leaf samples (Fig. S1C). Using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Fukuta et al. 2013), CWMV was detected in "Tozan Kawa 111" plants in the same field in the 2015/16-2017/18 growing seasons, but not in the 2018/19-2020/21 growing seasons (Fig. S1D). In the 2015/16-2017/18 growing seasons, CWMV was detected in the barley plants (pooled five plant samples) cultivar "Kashima-mugi", which showed similar yellow mosaic symptoms (Fig. S1D), but not in most of the other barley variants planted in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CWMV field infection in plants other than wheat (Kuhne 2009). Further extensive virus screening in the fields and virus inoculation experiments are necessary to understand the pathology of CWMV in barley and possibly in other cereal crops.

    DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2803-PDN

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  • Identification of a Novel Quinvirus in the Family Betaflexiviridae That Infects Winter Wheat. International journal

    Hideki Kondo, Naoto Yoshida, Miki Fujita, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Kiwamu Hyodo, Hiroshi Hisano, Tetsuo Tamada, Ida Bagus Andika, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Frontiers in microbiology   12   715545 - 715545   2021

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    Yellow mosaic disease in winter wheat is usually attributed to the infection by bymoviruses or furoviruses; however, there is still limited information on whether other viral agents are also associated with this disease. To investigate the wheat viromes associated with yellow mosaic disease, we carried out de novo RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of symptomatic and asymptomatic wheat-leaf samples obtained from a field in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2018 and 2019. The analyses revealed the infection by a novel betaflexivirus, which tentatively named wheat virus Q (WVQ), together with wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, a bymovirus) and northern cereal mosaic virus (a cytorhabdovirus). Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analyses showed that the WVQ strains (of which there are at least three) were related to the members of the genus Foveavirus in the subfamily Quinvirinae (family Betaflexiviridae). In the phylogenetic tree, they form a clade distant from that of the foveaviruses, suggesting that WVQ is a member of a novel genus in the Quinvirinae. Laboratory tests confirmed that WVQ, like WYMV, is potentially transmitted through the soil to wheat plants. WVQ was also found to infect rye plants grown in the same field. Moreover, WVQ-derived small interfering RNAs accumulated in the infected wheat plants, indicating that WVQ infection induces antiviral RNA silencing responses. Given its common coexistence with WYMV, the impact of WVQ infection on yellow mosaic disease in the field warrants detailed investigation.

    DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.715545

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  • Virome Analysis of Aphid Populations That Infest the Barley Field: The Discovery of Two Novel Groups of Nege/Kita-Like Viruses and Other Novel RNA Viruses. Reviewed International journal

    Hideki Kondo, Miki Fujita, Hiroshi Hisano, Kiwamu Hyodo, Ida Bagus Andika, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Frontiers in microbiology   11   509 - 509   2020

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    Aphids (order Hemiptera) are important insect pests of crops and are also vectors of many plant viruses. However, little is known about aphid-infecting viruses, particularly their diversity and relationship to plant viruses. To investigate the aphid viromes, we performed deep sequencing analyses of the aphid transcriptomes from infested barley plants in a field in Japan. We discovered virus-like sequences related to nege/kita-, flavi-, tombus-, phenui-, mononega-, narna-, chryso-, partiti-, and luteoviruses. Using RT-PCR and sequence analyses, we determined almost complete sequences of seven nege/kitavirus-like virus genomes; one of which was a variant of the Wuhan house centipede virus (WHCV-1). The other six seem to belong to four novel viruses distantly related to Wuhan insect virus 9 (WhIV-9) or Hubei nege-like virus 4 (HVLV-4). We designated the four viruses as barley aphid RNA virus 1 to 4 (BARV-1 to -4). Moreover, some nege/kitavirus-like sequences were found by searches on the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) libraries of arthropods and plants. Phylogenetic analyses showed that BARV-1 forms a clade with WHCV-1 and HVLV-4, whereas BARV-2 to -4 clustered with WhIV-9 and an aphid virus, Aphis glycines virus 3. Both virus groups (tentatively designated as Centivirus and Aphiglyvirus, respectively), together with arthropod virus-like TSAs, fill the phylogenetic gaps between the negeviruses and kitaviruses lineages. We also characterized the flavi/jingmen-like and tombus-like virus sequences as well as other RNA viruses, including six putative novel viruses, designated as barley aphid RNA viruses 5 to 10. Interestingly, we also discovered that some aphid-associated viruses, including nege/kita-like viruses, were present in different aphid species, raising a speculation that these viruses might be distributed across different aphid species with plants being the reservoirs. This study provides novel information on the diversity and spread of nege/kitavirus-related viruses and other RNA viruses that are associated with aphids.

    DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00509

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  • Two novel fungal negative-strand RNA viruses related to mymonaviruses and phenuiviruses in the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). Reviewed

    Lin YH, Fujita M, Chiba S, Hyodo K, Andika IB, Suzuki N, Kondo H

    Virology   533   125 - 136   2019.7

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    There is still limited information on the diversity of (−)ssRNA viruses that infect fungi. Here, we have discovered two novel (−)ssRNA mycoviruses in the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). The first virus has a monopartite RNA genome and relates to that of mymonaviruses (Mononegavirales), especially to Hubei rhabdo-like virus 4 from arthropods and thus designated as Lentinula edodes negative-strand RNA virus 1. The second virus has a putative bipartite RNA genome and is related to the recently discovered bipartite or tripartite phenui-like viruses (Bunyavirales) associated with plants and ticks, and designated as Lentinula edodes negative-strand RNA virus 2 (LeNSRV2). LeNSRV2 is likely the first segmented (−)ssRNA virus known to infect fungi. Its smaller RNA segment encodes a putative nucleocapsid and a plant MP-like protein using a potential ambisense coding strategy. These findings enhance our understanding of the diversity, evolution and spread of (−)ssRNA viruses in fungi.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.05.008

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  • A novel insect-infecting virga/nege-like virus group and its pervasive endogenization into insect genomes. Reviewed

    Kondo H, Chiba S, Maruyama K, Andika IB, Suzuki N

    Virus research   262   37 - 47   2019.3

  • Evidence for a novel negative-stranded RNA mycovirus isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum Reviewed

    Luan Wang, Hao He, Shuangchao Wang, Xiaoguang Chen, Dewen Qiu, Hideki Kondo, Lihua Guo

    Virology   518   232 - 240   2018.5

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    Here we describe a novel (−)ssRNA mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (FgNSRV-1), isolated from Fusarium graminearum strain HN1. The genome of FgNSRV-1 is 9072 nucleotides in length, with five discontinuous but linear ORFs (ORF I-V). Phylogenetic analysis based on entire L polymerase sequences indicated that FgNSRV-1 is related to the (−)ssRNA mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), and other mycoviruses. Our data suggest that FgNSRV-1 can be classified into the family Mymonaviridae, order Mononegavirales. Putative enveloped virion-like structures with filamentous morphology similar to SsNSRV-1 were observed in virion preparation samples. The L proteins of FgNSRV-1, and other fungal mononegaviruses, were found to be related to L protein-like sequences in some fungal genome, supporting the hypothesis that there is coevolution occurring between mycoviruses and fungi. Besides, clearing the virus from the infected host fungus resulted in no discernable phenotypic change.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.03.008

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  • A possible occurrence of genome reassortment among bipartite rhabdoviruses Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Keisuke Hirota, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Ida Bagus An'dika, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    VIROLOGY   508   18 - 25   2017.8

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) represents a rhabdovirus with a unique bipartite genome. OFV genetic diversity at the whole genome level has not been described. Using the partial genome sequence of RNA1, we have determined that several OFV isolates derived from orchids in Japan belong to two genetically distant subgroups: subgroup I, the members of which are distributed worldwide but previously not known in Asia, and subgroup II, which is commonly distributed in Japan. However, complete genome sequence analysis of a novel Japanese subgroup I isolate revealed that although its RNA1 sequence differs considerably from those of subgroup II isolates, its RNA2 sequence is almost identical to them. Based on phylogenetic and recombination analyses, the genome reassortment events were predicted to occur between OFV subgroups including other unseen strains. Our data show that genome reassortment contributes to the genetic diversities of the bipartite rhabdoviruses and its occurrence may be geographically constrained.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.04.027

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  • Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Sakae Hisano, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Ida Bagus Andika, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Fumihiro Fujimori, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Virus Research   213   353 - 364   2016.2

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    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (&lt
    44%) and with other known totiviruses (&lt
    59%). Nine of these identified sequences (RPaTV1a, 1b and 2-8) resembled the genome of the prototype totivirus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus-L-A (ScV-L-A) in that they contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a putative coat protein (CP) and an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), while one sequence (RPaTV9) showed similarity to another totivirus, Ustilago maydis virus H1 (UmV-H1) that encodes a single polyprotein (CP-RdRp fusion). Similar to yeast totiviruses, each ScV-L-A-like RPaTV contains a -1 ribosomal frameshift site downstream of a predicted pseudoknot structure in the overlapping region of these ORFs, suggesting that the RdRp is translated as a CP-RdRp fusion. Moreover, several ScV-L-A-like sequences were also found by searches of the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) libraries from rust fungi, plants and insects. Phylogenetic analyses show that nine ScV-L-A-like RPaTVs along with ScV-L-A-like sequences derived from TSA libraries are clustered with most established members of the genus Totivirus, while one RPaTV forms a new distinct clade with UmV-H1, possibly establishing an additional genus in the family. Taken together, our results indicate the presence of diverse, novel totiviruses in the powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2015.11.015

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  • Argonaute-independent, Dicer-dependent antiviral defense against RNA viruses. International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   121 ( 25 )   e2322765121   2024.6

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    Antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) is conserved from yeasts to mammals. Dicer recognizes and cleaves virus-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and/or structured single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) into small-interfering RNAs, which guide effector Argonaute to homologous viral RNAs for digestion and inhibit virus replication. Thus, Argonaute is believed to be essential for antiviral RNAi. Here, we show Argonaute-independent, Dicer-dependent antiviral defense against dsRNA viruses using Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight fungus), which is a model filamentous ascomycetous fungus and hosts a variety of viruses. The fungus has two dicer-like genes (dcl1 and dcl2) and four argonaute-like genes (agl1 to agl4). We prepared a suite of single to quadruple agl knockout mutants with or without dcl disruption. We tested these mutants for antiviral activities against diverse dsRNA viruses and ssRNA viruses. Although both DCL2 and AGL2 worked as antiviral players against some RNA viruses, DCL2 without argonaute was sufficient to block the replication of other RNA viruses. Overall, these results indicate the existence of a Dicer-alone defense and different degrees of susceptibility to it among RNA viruses. We discuss what determines the great difference in susceptibility to the Dicer-only defense.

    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2322765121

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  • Replication of single viruses across the kingdoms, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. International journal

    Paul Telengech, Kiwamu Hyodo, Hiroaki Ichikawa, Ryusei Kuwata, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   121 ( 25 )   e2318150121   2024.6

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    It is extremely rare that a single virus crosses host barriers across multiple kingdoms. Based on phylogenetic and paleovirological analyses, it has previously been hypothesized that single members of the family Partitiviridae could cross multiple kingdoms. Partitiviridae accommodates members characterized by their simple bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome; asymptomatic infections of host organisms; the absence of an extracellular route for entry in nature; and collectively broad host range. Herein, we show the replicability of single fungal partitiviruses in three kingdoms of host organisms: Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Betapartitiviruses of the phytopathogenic fungusRosellinia necatrix could replicate in protoplasts of the carrot (Daucus carota), Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum, in some cases reaching a level detectable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, betapartitiviruses showed more robust replication than the tested alphapartitiviruses. One of the fungal betapartitiviruses, RnPV18, could persistently and stably infect carrot plants regenerated from virion-transfected protoplasts. Both alpha- and betapartitiviruses, although with different host preference, could replicate in two insect cell lines derived from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Our results indicate the replicability of single partitiviruses in members of three kingdoms and provide insights into virus adaptation, host jumping, and evolution.

    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2318150121

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  • Identification of a negative-strand RNA virus with natural plant and fungal hosts. International journal

    Ruoyin Dai, Shian Yang, Tianxing Pang, Mengyuan Tian, Hao Wang, Dong Zhang, Yunfeng Wu, Hideki Kondo, Ida Bagus Andika, Zhensheng Kang, Liying Sun

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   121 ( 12 )   e2319582121   2024.3

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    The presence of viruses that spread to both plant and fungal populations in nature has posed intriguingly scientific question. We found a negative-strand RNA virus related to members of the family Phenuiviridae, named Valsa mali negative-strand RNA virus 1 (VmNSRV1), which induced strong hypovirulence and was prevalent in a population of the phytopathogenic fungus of apple Valsa canker (Valsa mali) infecting apple orchards in the Shaanxi Province of China. Intriguingly, VmNSRV1 encodes a protein with a viral cell-to-cell movement function in plant tissue. Mechanical leaf inoculation showed that VmNSRV1 could systemically infect plants. Moreover, VmNSRV1 was detected in 24 out of 139 apple trees tested in orchards in Shaanxi Province. Fungal inoculation experiments showed that VmNSRV1 could be bidirectionally transmitted between apple plants and V. mali, and VmNSRV1 infection in plants reduced the development of fungal lesions on leaves. Additionally, the nucleocapsid protein encoded by VmNSRV1 is associated with and rearranged lipid droplets in both fungal and plant cells. VmNSRV1 represents a virus that has adapted and spread to both plant and fungal hosts and shuttles between these two organisms in nature (phyto-mycovirus) and is potential to be utilized for the biocontrol method against plant fungal diseases. This finding presents further insights into the virus evolution and adaptation encompassing both plant and fungal hosts.

    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2319582121

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  • Decoding the RNA virome of the tree parasite Armillaria provides new insights into the viral community of soil-borne fungi. International journal

    Wajeeha Shamsi, Renate Heinzelmann, Sven Ulrich, Hideki Kondo, Carolina Cornejo

    Environmental microbiology   26 ( 2 )   e16583   2024.2

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    The globally distributed basidiomycete genus Armillaria includes wood decomposers that can act as opportunistic parasites, causing deadly root rot on woody plants. To test whether RNA viruses are involved in this opportunistic behaviour, a large isolate collection of five Armillaria species collected over 40 years in Switzerland from trees, dead wood and soil was analysed. De novo assembly of RNA-Seq data revealed 21 viruses, 14 of which belong to putative new species. Two dsRNA viruses and an unclassified Tymovirales are formally described for the first time for Armillaria. One mitovirus occurred with a high prevalence of 71.1%, while all other viruses were much less prevalent (0.6%-16.9%). About half of all viruses were found only in one fungal species, others occurred in 2-6 fungal species. Co-infections of 2-7 viruses per isolate were not uncommon (34.9%), and most viruses persisted circulating within fungal populations for decades. Some viruses were related to viruses associated with other Armillaria species, supporting the hypothesis that virus transmission can occur between different fungal species. Although no specific correlation between viruses and the fungal trophic strategy was found, this study opens new insights into viral diversity hidden in the soil microbiome.

    DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.16583

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  • Possible biological control of ash dieback using the mycoparasite Hymenoscyphus fraxineus mitovirus 2. International journal

    Wajeeha Shamsi, Jana Mittelstrass, Sven Ulrich, Hideki Kondo, Daniel Rigling, Simone Prospero

    Phytopathology   114 ( 5 )   1020 - 1027   2023.12

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    Invasive fungal diseases represent a major threat to forest ecosystems worldwide. As the application of fungicides is often unfeasible and not a sustainable solution, only a few other control options are available, including biological control. In this context, the use of parasitic mycoviruses as biocontrol agents of fungal pathogens has recently gained particular attention. Since the 1990s, the Asian fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been causing lethal ash dieback across Europe. In the present study, we investigated the biocontrol potential of the mitovirus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus mitovirus 2 (HfMV2) previously identified in Japanese populations of the pathogen. HfMV2 could be successfully introduced via co-culturing into 16 out of 105 HfMV2-free isolates. Infection with HfMV2 had contrasting effects on fungal growth in vitro, from cryptic to detrimental or beneficial. Virus-infected H. fraxineus isolates whose growth was reduced by HfMV2 showed overall a lower virulence on ash (Fraxinus excelsior) saplings as compared to their isogenic HfMV2-free lines. The results suggest that mycoviruses exist in the native populations of H. fraxineus in Asia that have the potential for biological control of ash dieback in Europe.

    DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-09-23-0346-KC

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  • Annual (2023) taxonomic update of RNA-directed RNA polymerase-encoding negative-sense RNA viruses (realm Riboviria: kingdom Orthornavirae: phylum Negarnaviricota). International journal

    Jens H Kuhn, Junya Abe, Scott Adkins, Sergey V Alkhovsky, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, María A Ayllón, Justin Bahl, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Matthew J Ballinger, Virendra Kumar Baranwal, Martin Beer, Nicolas Bejerman, Éric Bergeron, Nadine Biedenkopf, Carol D Blair, Kim R Blasdell, Arnaud G Blouin, Steven B Bradfute, Thomas Briese, Paul A Brown, Ursula J Buchholz, Michael J Buchmeier, Alexander Bukreyev, Felicity Burt, Carmen Büttner, Charles H Calisher, Mengji Cao, Inmaculada Casas, Kartik Chandran, Rémi N Charrel, Krishna Kumar Chaturvedi, Kar Mun Chooi, Anya Crane, Elena Dal Bó, Juan Carlos de la Torre, William M de Souza, Rik L de Swart, Humberto Debat, Nolwenn M Dheilly, Nicholas Di Paola, Francesco Di Serio, Ralf G Dietzgen, Michele Digiaro, J Felix Drexler, W Paul Duprex, Ralf Dürrwald, Andrew J Easton, Toufic Elbeaino, Koray Ergünay, Guozhong Feng, Andrew E Firth, Anthony R Fooks, Pierre B H Formenty, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Selma Gago-Zachert, María Laura García, Adolfo García-Sastre, Aura R Garrison, Thomas R Gaskin, Wenjie Gong, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, JoëlleGoüy de Bellocq, Anthony Griffiths, Martin H Groschup, Ines Günther, Stephan Günther, John Hammond, Yusuke Hasegawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Jussi Hepojoki, Colleen M Higgins, Seiji Hongō, Masayuki Horie, Holly R Hughes, Adam J Hume, Timothy H Hyndman, Kenichi Ikeda, Dàohóng Jiāng, Gilda B Jonson, Sandra Junglen, Boris Klempa, Jonas Klingström, Hideki Kondō, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Kenji Kubota, Gael Kurath, Lies Laenen, Amy J Lambert, Jiànróng Lǐ, Jun-Min Li, Ran Liu, Igor S Lukashevich, Robin M MacDiarmid, Piet Maes, Marco Marklewitz, Sergio H Marshall, Shin-Yi L Marzano, John W McCauley, Ali Mirazimi, Elke Mühlberger, Tomoyuki Nabeshima, Rayapati Naidu, Tomohide Natsuaki, Beatriz Navarro, José A Navarro, Yutaro Neriya, Sergey V Netesov, Gabriele Neumann, Norbert Nowotny, Márcio R T Nunes, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Tomoyuki Okada, Gustavo Palacios, Vicente Pallás, Anna Papa, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Colin R Parrish, Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Janusz T Pawęska, Daniel R Pérez, Florian Pfaff, Richard K Plemper, Thomas S Postler, Lee O Rabbidge, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Pedro L Ramos-González, Marius Rehanek, Renato O Resende, Carina A Reyes, Thaís C S Rodrigues, Víctor Romanowski, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Luisa Rubino, Jonathan A Runstadler, Sead Sabanadzovic, Sabrina Sadiq, Maria S Salvato, Takahide Sasaya, Martin Schwemmle, Stephen R Sharpe, Mang Shi, Yoshifumi Shimomoto, Venkidusamy Kavi Sidharthan, Manuela Sironi, Sophie Smither, Jin-Won Song, Kirsten M Spann, Jessica R Spengler, Mark D Stenglein, Ayato Takada, Sawana Takeyama, Akio Tatara, Robert B Tesh, Natalie J Thornburg, Xin Tian, Nicole D Tischler, Yasuhiro Tomitaka, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Changchun Tu, Massimo Turina, Ioannis E Tzanetakis, Anna Maria Vaira, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Bert Vanmechelen, Nikos Vasilakis, Martin Verbeek, Susanne von Bargen, Jiro Wada, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, Thomas B Waltzek, Anna E Whitfield, Yuri I Wolf, Han Xia, Evanthia Xylogianni, Hironobu Yanagisawa, Kazutaka Yano, Gongyin Ye, Zhiming Yuan, F Murilo Zerbini, Guilin Zhang, Song Zhang, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Lu Zhao, Arnfinn Lodden Økland

    The Journal of general virology   104 ( 8 )   2023.8

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    In April 2023, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by one new family, 14 new genera, and 140 new species. Two genera and 538 species were renamed. One species was moved, and four were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001864

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  • Identification of a novel dicistro-like virus associated with the roots of tomato plants. International journal

    Xinran Cao, Ziqi Wang, Jianguo Pang, Liying Sun, Hideki Kondo, Ida Bagus Andika

    Archives of virology   168 ( 8 )   214 - 214   2023.7

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    Viruses belonging to the family Dicistroviridae have a monopartite positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and infect a variety of arthropods. Using high-throughput sequencing, we detected a novel dicistro-like virus, tentatively named "tomato root-associated dicistro-like virus" (TRaDLV), in the roots of tomato plants showing yellow mosaic symptoms on the leaves. The diseased tomato plants were coinfected with multiple plant viruses, and TRaDLV was present in the roots but not in the leaves. The genome of TRaDLV is 8726 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains two open reading frames (ORFs) separated by an intergenic region (IGR). The TRaDLV genome showed characteristics similar to those of dicistroviruses, including the presence of a 3C-like protease domain, repeated amino acid sequences representing multiple copies of viral genome-linked protein (VPg)-like sequences in the ORF1 polyprotein, and a series of stem-loop structures resembling an internal ribosome entry site in the IGR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRaDLV clustered with unclassified dicistro-like viruses from invertebrates or identified in samples of plant-derived material. These findings indicate the existence of a novel dicistro-like virus that may associate with plant roots or a root-inhabiting organism.

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hadakaviridae 2023 International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Massimo Turina, Sotaro Chiba, Ryo Okada, Muhammad F. Bhatti, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Robert H. A. Coutts, Hideki Kondo, Sead Sabanadzovic, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Journal of General Virology   104 ( 1 )   2023.1

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    The family Hadakaviridae, including the genus Hadakavirus, accommodates capsidless viruses with a 10- or 11-segmented positive-sense (+) RNA genome. Currently known hosts are ascomycetous filamentous fungi. Although phylogenetically related to polymycovirids with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome and certain encapsidated picorna-like viruses, hadakavirids are distinct in their lack of a capsid (‘hadaka’ means naked in Japanese) and their consequent inability to be pelleted by conventional ultracentrifugation; they show ribonuclease susceptibility in host tissue homogenates. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Hadakaviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/hadakaviridae.

    DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001820

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Yadokariviridae 2023. International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Subha Das, Leonardo Velasco, Massimo Turina, Hideki Osaki, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Robert H A Coutts, Hideki Kondo, Sead Sabanadzovic, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Ictv Report Consortium

    The Journal of general virology   104 ( 1 )   2023.1

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    The family Yadokariviridae, with the genera Alphayadokarivirus and Betayadokarivirus, includes capsidless non-segmented positive-sense (+) RNA viruses that hijack capsids from phylogenetically distant double-stranded RNA viruses. Yadokarivirids likely replicate inside the hijacked heterocapsids using their own RNA-directed RNA polymerase, mimicking dsRNA viruses despite their phylogenetic placement in a (+) RNA virus lineage. Yadokarivirids can have negative or positive impacts on their host fungi, through interactions with the capsid donor dsRNA viruses. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the family Yadokariviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/yadokariviridae.

    DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001826

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  • 2022 taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. International journal

    Jens H Kuhn, Scott Adkins, Sergey V Alkhovsky, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, María A Ayllón, Justin Bahl, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Matthew J Ballinger, Martina Bandte, Martin Beer, Nicolas Bejerman, Éric Bergeron, Nadine Biedenkopf, Laurent Bigarré, Carol D Blair, Kim R Blasdell, Steven B Bradfute, Thomas Briese, Paul A Brown, Rémy Bruggmann, Ursula J Buchholz, Michael J Buchmeier, Alexander Bukreyev, Felicity Burt, Carmen Büttner, Charles H Calisher, Thierry Candresse, Jeremy Carson, Inmaculada Casas, Kartik Chandran, Rémi N Charrel, Yuya Chiaki, Anya Crane, Mark Crane, Laurent Dacheux, Elena Dal Bó, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Xavier de Lamballerie, William M de Souza, Rik L de Swart, Nolwenn M Dheilly, Nicholas Di Paola, Francesco Di Serio, Ralf G Dietzgen, Michele Digiaro, J Felix Drexler, W Paul Duprex, Ralf Dürrwald, Andrew J Easton, Toufic Elbeaino, Koray Ergünay, Guozhong Feng, Claudette Feuvrier, Andrew E Firth, Anthony R Fooks, Pierre B H Formenty, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Selma Gago-Zachert, María Laura García, Adolfo García-Sastre, Aura R Garrison, Scott E Godwin, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq, Anthony Griffiths, Martin H Groschup, Stephan Günther, John Hammond, Jussi Hepojoki, Melanie M Hierweger, Seiji Hongō, Masayuki Horie, Hidenori Horikawa, Holly R Hughes, Adam J Hume, Timothy H Hyndman, Dàohóng Jiāng, Gilda B Jonson, Sandra Junglen, Fujio Kadono, David G Karlin, Boris Klempa, Jonas Klingström, Michel C Koch, Hideki Kondō, Eugene V Koonin, Jarmila Krásová, Mart Krupovic, Kenji Kubota, Ivan V Kuzmin, Lies Laenen, Amy J Lambert, Jiànróng Lǐ, Jun-Min Li, François Lieffrig, Igor S Lukashevich, Dongsheng Luo, Piet Maes, Marco Marklewitz, Sergio H Marshall, Shin-Yi L Marzano, John W McCauley, Ali Mirazimi, Peter G Mohr, Nick J G Moody, Yasuaki Morita, Richard N Morrison, Elke Mühlberger, Rayapati Naidu, Tomohide Natsuaki, José A Navarro, Yutaro Neriya, Sergey V Netesov, Gabriele Neumann, Norbert Nowotny, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Gustavo Palacios, Laurane Pallandre, Vicente Pallás, Anna Papa, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Colin R Parrish, Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Janusz T Pawęska, Daniel R Pérez, Florian Pfaff, Richard K Plemper, Thomas S Postler, Françoise Pozet, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Pedro L Ramos-González, Marius Rehanek, Renato O Resende, Carina A Reyes, Víctor Romanowski, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Luisa Rubino, Artemis Rumbou, Jonathan A Runstadler, Melanie Rupp, Sead Sabanadzovic, Takahide Sasaya, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Martin Schwemmle, Torsten Seuberlich, Stephen R Sharpe, Mang Shi, Manuela Sironi, Sophie Smither, Jin-Won Song, Kirsten M Spann, Jessica R Spengler, Mark D Stenglein, Ayato Takada, Robert B Tesh, Jana Těšíková, Natalie J Thornburg, Nicole D Tischler, Yasuhiro Tomitaka, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Kenta Tsunekawa, Massimo Turina, Ioannis E Tzanetakis, Anna Maria Vaira, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Bert Vanmechelen, Nikos Vasilakis, Martin Verbeek, Susanne von Bargen, Jiro Wada, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, Anna E Whitfield, John V Williams, Yuri I Wolf, Junki Yamasaki, Hironobu Yanagisawa, Gongyin Ye, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Arnfinn Lodden Økland

    Archives of virology   167 ( 12 )   2857 - 2906   2022.11

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    In March 2022, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by two new families (bunyaviral Discoviridae and Tulasviridae), 41 new genera, and 98 new species. Three hundred forty-nine species were renamed and/or moved. The accidentally misspelled names of seven species were corrected. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

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  • Natural Cross-Kingdom Spread of Apple Scar Skin Viroid from Apple Trees to Fungi. International journal

    Mengyuan Tian, Shuang Wei, Ruiling Bian, Jingxian Luo, Haris Ahmed Khan, Huanhuan Tai, Hideki Kondo, Ahmed Hadidi, Ida Bagus Andika, Liying Sun

    Cells   11 ( 22 )   2022.11

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    Viroids are the smallest known infectious agents that are thought to only infect plants. Here, we reveal that several species of plant pathogenic fungi that were isolated from apple trees infected with apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) carried ASSVd naturally. This finding indicates the spread of viroids to fungi under natural conditions and further suggests the possible existence of mycoviroids in nature. A total of 117 fungal isolates were isolated from ASSVd-infected apple trees, with the majority (85.5%) being an ascomycete Alternaria alternata and the remaining isolates being other plant-pathogenic or -endophytic fungi. Out of the examined samples, viroids were detected in 81 isolates (69.2%) including A. alternata as well as other fungal species. The phenotypic comparison of ASSVd-free specimens developed by single-spore isolation and ASSVd-infected fungal isogenic lines showed that ASSVd affected the growth and pathogenicity of certain fungal species. ASSVd confers hypovirulence on ascomycete Epicoccum nigrum. The mycobiome analysis of apple tree-associated fungi showed that ASSVd infection did not generally affect the diversity and structure of fungal communities but specifically increased the abundance of Alternaria species. Taken together, these data reveal the occurrence of the natural spread of viroids to plants; additionally, as an integral component of the ecosystem, viroids may affect the abundance of certain fungal species in plants. Moreover, this study provides further evidence that viroid infection could induce symptoms in certain filamentous fungi.

    DOI: 10.3390/cells11223686

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Mymonaviridae 2022. International journal

    Dàohóng Jiāng, María A Ayllón, Shin-Yi L Marzano, Hideki Kondō, Massimo Turina, Ictv Report Consortium

    The Journal of general virology   103 ( 11 )   2022.11

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    Typical members of the family Mymonaviridae produce filamentous, enveloped virions containing a single molecule of linear, negative-sense RNA of about about 10 kb, but some may not produce any virions. The family includes several genera, some with multiple species. Mymonavirids usually infect filamentous fungi, but a few have been identified associated with insects, oomycetes or plants. At least one virus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1, induces hypovirulence in its fungal host. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Mymonaviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/mymonaviridae.

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  • Identification of novel totiviruses from the ascomycetous fungus Geotrichum candidum. International journal

    Haris Ahmed Khan, Hideki Kondo, Sabitree Shahi, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Archives of virology   2022.10

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    Mycoviruses are widely distributed across the kingdom Fungi, including ascomycetous yeast strains of the class Saccharomycetes. Geotrichum candidum is an important fungal pathogen belonging to Saccharomycetes and has a diverse host range. Here, we report the characterization of four new classical totiviruses from two distinct Geotrichum candidum strains from Pakistan. The four identified viruses were tentatively named "Geotrichum candidum totivirus 1, 2, 3a, and 3b" (GcTV1-3b). The complete dsRNA genomes of the identified totiviruses are 4621, 4592, 4576, and 4576 bp in length, respectively. All totivirus genomes have two open reading frames, encoding a capsid protein (CP) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), respectively. The downstream RdRP domain is assumed to be expressed as a CP-RdRP fusion product via -1 frameshifting mediated by a heptameric slippery site. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that each of the discovered viruses belongs to a new species of the genus Totivirus in the family Totiviridae, with GcTV1 and GcTV3 (a and b strains) clustering in one subgroup and GcTV2 in another subgroup.

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  • Common but Nonpersistent Acquisitions of Plant Viruses by Plant-Associated Fungi. International journal

    Xinran Cao, Jie Liu, Jianguo Pang, Hideki Kondo, Shengqi Chi, Jianfeng Zhang, Liying Sun, Ida Bagus Andika

    Viruses   14 ( 10 )   2022.10

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    Investigating a virus's host range and cross-infection is important for better understanding the epidemiology and emergence of viruses. Previously, our research group discovered a natural infection of a plant RNA virus, cumber mosaic virus (genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae), in a plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, isolated from a potato plant grown in the field. Here, we further extended the study to investigate whether similar cross-infection of plant viruses occurs widely in plant-associated fungi in natural conditions. Various vegetable plants such as spinach, leaf mustard, radish, celery, and other vegetables that showed typical virus-like diseases were collected from the fields in Shandong Province, China. High-throughput sequencing revealed that at least 11 known RNA viruses belonging to different genera, including Potyvirus, Fabavirus, Polerovirus, Waikavirus, and Cucumovirus, along with novel virus candidates belonging to other virus genera, infected or associated with the collected vegetable plants, and most of the leaf samples contained multiple plant viruses. A large number of filamentous fungal strains were isolated from the vegetable leaf samples and subjected to screening for the presence of plant viruses. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing of the PCR products revealed that among the 169 fungal strains tested, around 50% were carrying plant viruses, and many of the strains harbored multiple plant viruses. The plant viruses detected in the fungal isolates were diverse (10 virus species) and not limited to particular virus genera. However, after prolonged maintenance of the fungal culture in the laboratory, many of the fungal strains have lost the virus. Sequencing of the fungal DNA indicated that most of the fungal strains harboring plant viruses were related to plant pathogenic and/or endophytic fungi belonging to the genera Alternaria, Lecanicillium, and Sarocladium. These observations suggest that the nonpersistent acquisition of plant viruses by fungi may commonly occur in nature. Our findings highlight a possible role for fungi in the life cycle, spread, and evolution of plant viruses.

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  • Novel RNA viruses from the native range of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal fungal agent of ash dieback. International journal

    Wajeeha Shamsi, Hideki Kondo, Sven Ulrich, Daniel Rigling, Simone Prospero

    Virus research   320   198901 - 198901   2022.10

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    The native Japanese population of the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal agent of ash dieback in Europe, was screened for viruses using a high-throughput sequencing method. Five RNA viruses were detected in 116 fungal isolates sequenced via Illumina RNA-seq platform, with an overall virus prevalence of 11.2%. The viruses were completely sequenced by RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) followed by Sanger sequencing. The sequences appear to represent new species from three established families (Mito-, Endorna- and Partitiviridae), one recognized genus (Botybirnavirus) and a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus in the order Bunyavirales from the proposed family "Mybuviridae". The highest prevalence was found for the mitovirus (7.8%), that had two genomic forms (linear and circular), while the other viruses were detected each in one isolate. Co-infection of a mitovirus and an endornavirus was also observed in one of the infected isolates. Here we describe the molecular characterization of the identified viruses. This study expands the diversity of viruses in H. fraxineus and provides the basis for investigating the virus-mediated control of ash dieback in Europe.

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  • Three-Layered Complex Interactions among Capsidless (+)ssRNA Yadokariviruses, dsRNA Viruses, and a Fungus International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Sakae Hisano, Carlos José López-Herrera, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    mBio   13 ( 5 )   e0168522   2022.8

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    A capsidless (+)ssRNA virus YkV1 (family Yadokariviridae ) highjacks the capsid of an unrelated dsRNA virus YnV1 (proposed family “ Yadonushiviridae ”) in a phytopathogenic ascomycete, while YkV1 trans -enhances YnV1 replication. Herein, we identified the dsRNA virus partners of three yadokariviruses (YkV3, YkV4a, and YkV4b) with genome organization different from YkV1 as being different from YnV1 at the suborder level.

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  • A Transfectable Fusagravirus from a Japanese Strain of Cryphonectria carpinicola with Spherical Particles. International journal

    Subha Das, Sakae Hisano, Ana Eusebio-Cope, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Viruses   14 ( 8 )   2022.8

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    A novel dsRNA virus (Cryphonectria carpinicola fusagravirus 1, CcFGV1), isolated from a Japanese strain (JS13) of Cryphonectria carpinicola, was thoroughly characterized. The biological comparison of a set of isogenic CcFGV1-infected and -free (JS13VF) strains indicated asymptomatic infection by CcFGV1. The sequence analysis showed that the virus has a two open reading frame (ORF) genome of 9.6 kbp with the RNA-directed RNA polymerase domain encoded by ORF2. The N-terminal sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting showed an N-terminally processed or degraded product (150 kDa) of the 5'-proximal ORF1-encoded protein (1462 amino acids) to make up the CcFGV1 spherical particles of ~40 nm in diameter. Interestingly, a portion of CcFGV1 dsRNA co-fractionated with a host protein of 70 kDa. The purified CcFGV1 particles were used to transfect protoplasts of JS13VF as well as the standard strain of an experimental model filamentous fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica. CcFGV1 was confirmed to be associated with asymptomatic infection of both fungi. RNA silencing was shown to target the virus in C. parasitica, resulting in reduced CcFGV1 accumulation by comparing the CcFGV1 content between RNA silencing-competent and -deficient strains. These results indicate the transfectability of spherical particles of a fusagravirus associated with asymptomatic infection.

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  • Mycovirus Hunting Revealed the Presence of Diverse Viruses in a Single Isolate of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Diplodia seriata From Pakistan

    Haris Ahmed Khan, Paul Telengech, Hideki Kondo, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology   12   2022.6

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    Diplodia seriata in the family Botryosphaeriaceae is a cosmopolitan phytopathogenic fungus and is responsible for causing cankers, fruit rot and leaf spots on economically important plants. In this study, we characterized the virome of a single Pakistani strain (L3) of D. seriata. Several viral-like contig sequences were obtained via a previously conducted next-generation sequencing analysis. Multiple infection of the L3 strain by eight RNA mycoviruses was confirmed through RT-PCR using total RNA samples extracted from this strain; the entire genomes were determined via Sanger sequencing of RT-PCR and RACE clones. A BLAST search and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these eight mycoviruses belong to seven different viral families. Four identified mycoviruses belong to double-stranded RNA viral families, including Polymycoviridae, Chrysoviridae, Totiviridae and Partitiviridae, and the remaining four identified mycoviruses belong to single-stranded RNA viral families, i.e., Botourmiaviridae, and two previously proposed families “Ambiguiviridae” and “Splipalmiviridae”. Of the eight, five mycoviruses appear to represent new virus species. A morphological comparison of L3 and partially cured strain L3ht1 suggested that one or more of the three viruses belonging to Polymycoviridae, “Splipalmiviridae” and “Ambiguiviridae” are involved in the irregular colony phenotype of L3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of diverse virome characterization from D. seriata.

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  • Coat protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus upregulates and interacts with cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a negative regulator of plant autophagy, to promote virus infection. International journal

    Erbo Niu, Chaozheng Ye, Wanying Zhao, Hideki Kondo, Yunfeng Wu, Jianping Chen, Ida Bagus Andika, Liying Sun

    Journal of integrative plant biology   2022.6

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    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation mechanism involved in antiviral defense, but the strategies employed by plant viruses to counteract autophagy-related defense remain unknown for the majority of the viruses. Herein, we describe how the Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV, genus Furovirus) interferes with autophagy and enhances its infection in Nicotiana benthamiana. Yeast two-hybrid screening and in vivo/in vitro assays revealed that the 19 kDa coat protein (CP19K) of CWMV interacts with cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPCs), negative regulators of autophagy, which bind autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3), a key factor in autophagy. CP19K also directly interacts with ATG3, possibly leading to the formation of a CP19K-GAPC-ATG3 complex. CP19K-GAPC interaction appeared to intensify CP19K-ATG3 binding. Moreover, CP19K expression upregulated GAPC gene transcripts and reduced autophagic activities. Accordingly, the silencing of GAPC genes in transgenic N. benthamiana reduced CWMV accumulation, whereas CP19K overexpression enhanced it. Overall, our results suggest that CWMV CP19K interferes with autophagy through the promotion and utilization of the GAPC role as a negative regulator of autophagy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae 2022. International journal

    Peter J Walker, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Nicolas Bejerman, Kim R Blasdell, Rachel Breyta, Ralf G Dietzgen, Anthony R Fooks, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Ivan V Kuzmin, Pedro Luis Ramos-González, Mang Shi, David M Stone, Robert B Tesh, Noël Tordo, Nikos Vasilakis, Anna E Whitfield, Ictv Report Consortium

    The Journal of general virology   103 ( 6 )   2022.6

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    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) RNA genomes of 10-16 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants or animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians or fish, as well as arthropods, which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish or agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Rhabdoviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

    DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001689

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  • A novel deltapartitivirus from red clover. International journal

    Paul Telengech, Sabitree Shahi, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Archives of virology   167 ( 4 )   1201 - 1204   2022.4

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    The family Partitiviridae has five genera, among which is the genus Deltapartitivirus. We report here the complete genome sequence of a deltapartitivirus from red clover, termed "red clover cryptic virus 3" (RCCV3). RCCV3 has a bisegmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genome. dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 are 1580 and 1589 nucleotides (nt) in length and are predicted to encode an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) and a capsid protein (CP), respectively. The RCCV3 RdRP shares the highest sequence identity with the RdRP of a previously reported deltapartitivirus, Medicago sativa deltapartitivirus 1 (MsDPV1) (76.5%), while the RCCV3 CP shows 50% sequence identity to the CP of MsDPV1. RdRP- and CP-based phylogenetic trees place RCCV3 into a clade of deltapartitiviruses. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that RCCV3 represents a new species in the genus Deltapartitivirus. RCCV3 was detectable in all three tested cultivars of red clover.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00705-022-05372-3

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  • A novel victorivirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Neofusicoccum parvum. International journal

    Haris Ahmed Khan, Yukiyo Sato, Hideki Kondo, Atif Jamal, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Archives of virology   167 ( 3 )   923 - 929   2022.3

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    Neofusicoccum parvum is an important plant-pathogenic ascomycetous fungus that causes trunk diseases in a variety of plants. A limited number of reports on mycoviruses from this fungus are available. Here, we report the characterization of a novel victorivirus, Neofusicoccum parvum victorivirus 3 (NpVV3). An agarose gel dsRNA profile of a Pakistani strain of N. parvum, NFN, showed a band of ~5 kbp that was not detectable in Japanese strains of N. parvum. Taking a high-throughput and Sanger sequencing approach, the complete genome sequence of NpVV3 was determined to be 5226 bp in length with two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) that encode a capsid protein (CP) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). The RdRP appears to be translated by a stop/restart mechanism facilitated by the junction sequence AUGucUGA, as is found in some other victoriviruses. BLASTp searches showed that NpVV3 CP and RdRP share the highest amino acid sequence identity (80.5% and 72.4%, respectively) with the corresponding proteins of NpVV1 isolated from a French strain of N. parvum. However, NpVV3 was found to be different from NpVV1 in its terminal sequences and the stop/restart facilitator sequence. NpVV3 particles ~35 nm in diameter were partially purified and used to infect an antiviral-RNA-silencing-deficient strain (∆dcl2) of an experimental ascomycetous fungal host, Cryphonectria parasitica. NpVV3 showed symptomless infection in the new host strain.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00705-021-05304-7

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  • Plant viruses and viroids in Japan

    Shin ichi Fuji, Tomofumi Mochizuki, Mitsuru Okuda, Shinya Tsuda, Satoshi Kagiwada, Ken Taro Sekine, Masashi Ugaki, Keiko T. Natsuaki, Masamichi Isogai, Tetsuo Maoka, Minoru Takeshita, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa, Kazuyuki Mise, Takahide Sasaya, Hideki Kondo, Kenji Kubota, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Toru Iwanami, Kazusato Ohshima, Kappei Kobayashi, Tatsuji Hataya, Teruo Sano, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Journal of General Plant Pathology   88 ( 2 )   105 - 127   2022.3

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    An increasing number of plant viruses and viroids have been reported from all over the world due largely to metavirogenomics approaches with technological innovation. Herein, the official changes of virus taxonomy, including the establishment of megataxonomy and amendments of the codes of virus classification and nomenclature, recently made by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses were summarized. The continued efforts of the plant virology community of Japan to index all plant viruses and viroids occurring in Japan, which represent 407 viruses, including 303 virus species and 104 unclassified viruses, and 25 viroids, including 20 species and 5 unclassified viroids, as of October 2021, were also introduced. These viruses and viroids are collectively classified into 81 genera within 26 families of 3 kingdoms (Shotokuvirae, Orthornavirae, Pararnavirae) across 2 realms (Monodnaviria and Riboviria). This review also overviewed how Japan’s plant virus/viroid studies have contributed to advance virus/viroid taxonomy.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10327-022-01051-y

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  • A new tetra-segmented splipalmivirus with divided RdRP domains from Cryphonectria naterciae, a fungus found on chestnut and cork oak trees in Europe. International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Sabitree Shahi, Paul Telengech, Sakae Hisano, Carolina Cornejo, Daniel Rigling, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Virus research   307   198606 - 198606   2022.1

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    Positive-sense (+), single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses with divided RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) domains have been reported from diverse filamentous ascomycetes since 2020. These viruses are termed splipalmiviruses or polynarnaviruses and have been characterized largely at the sequence level, but ill-defined biologically. Cryphonectria naterciae, from which only one virus has been reported, is an ascomycetous fungus potentially plant-pathogenic to chestnut and oak trees. We molecularly characterized multiple viruses in a single Portuguese isolate (C0614) of C. naterciae, taking a metatranscriptomic and conventional double-stranded RNA approach. Among them are a novel splipalmivirus (Cryphonectria naterciae splipalmivirus 1, CnSpV1) and a novel fusagravirus (Cryphonectria naterciae fusagravirus 1, CnFGV1). This study focused on the former virus. CnSpV1 has a tetra-segmented, (+)ssRNA genome (RNA1 to RNA4). As observed for other splipalmiviruses reported in 2020 and 2021, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain is separately encoded by RNA1 (motifs F, A and B) and RNA2 (motifs C and D). A hypothetical protein encoded by the 5'-proximal open reading frame of RNA3 shows similarity to a counterpart conserved in some splipalmiviruses. The other RNA3-encoded protein and RNA4-encoded protein show no similarity with known proteins in a blastp search. The tetra-segment nature was confirmed by the conserved terminal sequences of the four CnSpV1 segments (RNA1 to RNA4) and their 100% coexistence in over 100 single conidial isolates tested. The experimental introduction of CnSpV1 along with CnFGV1 into a virus free strain C0754 of C. naterciae vegetatively incompatible with C0614 resulted in no phenotypic alteration, suggesting asymptomatic infection. The protoplast fusion assay indicates a considerably narrow host range of CnSpV1, restricted to the species C. naterciae and C. carpinicola. This study contributes to better understanding of the molecular and biological properties of this unique group of viruses.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198606

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  • Distinctive in vitro ATP Hydrolysis Activity of AtVIPP1, a Chloroplastic ESCRT-III Superfamily Protein in Arabidopsis. International journal

    Norikazu Ohnishi, Manabu Sugimoto, Hideki Kondo, Ken-Ichi Shioya, Lingang Zhang, Wataru Sakamoto

    Frontiers in plant science   13   949578 - 949578   2022

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    Vesicle-inducing protein in plastid 1 (VIPP1), characteristic to oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, is a membrane-remodeling factor that forms homo-oligomers and functions in thylakoid membrane formation and maintenance. The cyanobacterial VIPP1 structure revealed a monomeric folding pattern similar to that of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III. Characteristic to VIPP1, however, is its own GTP and ATP hydrolytic activity without canonical domains. In this study, we found that histidine-tagged Arabidopsis VIPP1 (AtVIPP1) hydrolyzed GTP and ATP to produce GDP and ADP in vitro, respectively. Unexpectedly, the observed GTPase and ATPase activities were biochemically distinguishable, because the ATPase was optimized for alkaline conditions and dependent on Ca2+ as well as Mg2+, with a higher affinity for ATP than GTP. We found that a version of AtVIPP1 protein with a mutation in its nucleotide-binding site, as deduced from the cyanobacterial structure, retained its hydrolytic activity, suggesting that Arabidopsis and cyanobacterial VIPP1s have different properties. Negative staining particle analysis showed that AtVIPP1 formed particle or rod structures that differed from those of cyanobacteria and Chlamydomonas. These results suggested that the nucleotide hydrolytic activity and oligomer formation of VIPP1 are common in photosynthetic organisms, whereas their properties differ among species.

    DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.949578

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  • 2021 Taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. International journal

    Jens H Kuhn, Scott Adkins, Bernard R Agwanda, Rim Al Kubrusli, Sergey V Alkhovsky, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, María A Ayllón, Justin Bahl, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Matthew J Ballinger, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Martin Beer, Nicolas Bejerman, Andrew J Bennett, Dennis A Bente, Éric Bergeron, Brian H Bird, Carol D Blair, Kim R Blasdell, Dag-Ragnar Blystad, Jamie Bojko, Wayne B Borth, Steven Bradfute, Rachel Breyta, Thomas Briese, Paul A Brown, Judith K Brown, Ursula J Buchholz, Michael J Buchmeier, Alexander Bukreyev, Felicity Burt, Carmen Büttner, Charles H Calisher, Mengji Cao, Inmaculada Casas, Kartik Chandran, Rémi N Charrel, Qi Cheng, Yuya Chiaki, Marco Chiapello, Il-Ryong Choi, Marina Ciuffo, J Christopher S Clegg, Ian Crozier, Elena Dal Bó, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Xavier de Lamballerie, Rik L de Swart, Humberto Debat, Nolwenn M Dheilly, Emiliano Di Cicco, Nicholas Di Paola, Francesco Di Serio, Ralf G Dietzgen, Michele Digiaro, Olga Dolnik, Michael A Drebot, J Felix Drexler, William G Dundon, W Paul Duprex, Ralf Dürrwald, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Hideki Ebihara, Toufic Elbeaino, Koray Ergünay, Hugh W Ferguson, Anthony R Fooks, Marco Forgia, Pierre B H Formenty, Jana Fránová, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Jingjing Fu, Stephanie Fürl, Selma Gago-Zachert, George Fú Gāo, María Laura García, Adolfo García-Sastre, Aura R Garrison, Thomas Gaskin, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, Anthony Griffiths, Tony L Goldberg, Martin H Groschup, Stephan Günther, Roy A Hall, John Hammond, Tong Han, Jussi Hepojoki, Roger Hewson, Jiang Hong, Ni Hong, Seiji Hongo, Masayuki Horie, John S Hu, Tao Hu, Holly R Hughes, Florian Hüttner, Timothy H Hyndman, M Ilyas, Risto Jalkanen, Dàohóng Jiāng, Gilda B Jonson, Sandra Junglen, Fujio Kadono, Karia H Kaukinen, Michael Kawate, Boris Klempa, Jonas Klingström, Gary Kobinger, Igor Koloniuk, Hideki Kondō, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Kenji Kubota, Gael Kurath, Lies Laenen, Amy J Lambert, Stanley L Langevin, Benhur Lee, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Eric M Leroy, Shaorong Li, Longhui Li, Jiànróng Lǐ, Huazhen Liu, Igor S Lukashevich, Piet Maes, William Marciel de Souza, Marco Marklewitz, Sergio H Marshall, Shin-Yi L Marzano, Sebastien Massart, John W McCauley, Michael Melzer, Nicole Mielke-Ehret, Kristina M Miller, Tobi J Ming, Ali Mirazimi, Gideon J Mordecai, Hans-Peter Mühlbach, Elke Mühlberger, Rayapati Naidu, Tomohide Natsuaki, José A Navarro, Sergey V Netesov, Gabriele Neumann, Norbert Nowotny, Márcio R T Nunes, Alejandro Olmedo-Velarde, Gustavo Palacios, Vicente Pallás, Bernadett Pályi, Anna Papa, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Adam C Park, Colin R Parrish, David A Patterson, Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Janusz T Pawęska, Susan Payne, Carlotta Peracchio, Daniel R Pérez, Thomas S Postler, Liying Qi, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Renato O Resende, Carina A Reyes, Bertus K Rima, Gabriel Robles Luna, Víctor Romanowski, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Luisa Rubino, Jonathan A Runstadler, Sead Sabanadzovic, Amadou Alpha Sall, Maria S Salvato, Rosemary Sang, Takahide Sasaya, Angela D Schulze, Martin Schwemmle, Mang Shi, Xiǎohóng Shí, Zhènglì Shí, Yoshifumi Shimomoto, Yukio Shirako, Stuart G Siddell, Peter Simmonds, Manuela Sironi, Guy Smagghe, Sophie Smither, Jin-Won Song, Kirsten Spann, Jessica R Spengler, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Jari Sugano, Curtis A Suttle, Amy Tabata, Ayato Takada, Shigeharu Takeuchi, David P Tchouassi, Amy Teffer, Robert B Tesh, Natalie J Thornburg, Yasuhiro Tomitaka, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Baldwyn Torto, Jonathan S Towner, Shinya Tsuda, Changchun Tu, Massimo Turina, Ioannis E Tzanetakis, Janice Uchida, Tomio Usugi, Anna Maria Vaira, Marta Vallino, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Arvind Varsani, Nikos Vasilakis, Martin Verbeek, Susanne von Bargen, Jiro Wada, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, Lin-Fa Wang, Guoping Wang, Yanxiang Wang, Yaqin Wang, Muhammad Waqas, Tàiyún Wèi, Shaohua Wen, Anna E Whitfield, John V Williams, Yuri I Wolf, Jiangxiang Wu, Lei Xu, Hironobu Yanagisawa, Caixia Yang, Zuokun Yang, F Murilo Zerbini, Lifeng Zhai, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Song Zhang, Jinguo Zhang, Zhe Zhang, Xueping Zhou

    Archives of virology   166 ( 12 )   3513 - 3566   2021.12

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    In March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, and Gammarhabdovirinae), 42 genera, and 200 species. Thirty-nine species were renamed and/or moved and seven species were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00705-021-05143-6

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  • Assessment of mycoviral diversity in Pakistani fungal isolates revealed infection by 11 novel viruses of a single strain of Fusarium mangiferae isolate SP1. International journal

    Haris Ahmed Khan, Wajeeha Shamsi, Atif Jamal, Memoona Javaied, Mashal Sadiq, Tehsin Fatma, Aqeel Ahmed, Maleeha Arshad, Mubashra Waseem, Samra Babar, Midhat Mustafa Dogar, Nasar Virk, Hussnain Ahmed Janjua, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti

    The Journal of general virology   102 ( 12 )   2021.12

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    An extensive screening survey was conducted on Pakistani filamentous fungal isolates for the identification of viral infections. A total of 396 fungal samples were screened, of which 36 isolates were found double-stranded (ds) RNA positive with an overall frequency of 9% when analysed by a classical dsRNA isolation method. One of 36 dsRNA-positive strains, strain SP1 of a plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium mangiferae, was subjected to virome analysis. Next-generation sequencing and subsequent completion of the entire genome sequencing by a classical Sanger sequencing method showed the SP1 strain to be co-infected by 11 distinct viruses, at least seven of which should be described as new taxa at the species level according to the ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) species demarcation criteria. The newly identified F. mangiferae viruses (FmVs) include two partitivirids, one betapartitivirus (FmPV1) and one gammapartitivirus (FmPV2); six mitovirids, three unuamitovirus (FmMV2, FmMV4, FmMV6), one duamitovirus (FmMV5), and two unclassified mitovirids (FmMV1, FmMV3); and three botourmiavirids, two magoulivirus (FmBOV1, FmBOV3) and one scleroulivirus (FmBOV2). The number of coinfecting viruses is among the largest ones of fungal coinfections. Their molecular features are thoroughly described here. This represents the first large virus survey in the Indian sub-continent.

    DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001690

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  • Omnipresence of Partitiviruses in Rice Aggregate Sheath Spot Symptom-Associated Fungal Isolates from Paddies in Thailand.

    Sokty Neang, Santiti Bincader, Sansern Rangsuwan, Pisut Keawmanee, Soriya Rin, Lakha Salaipeth, Subha Das, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Ikuo Sato, Daigo Takemoto, Chainarong Rattanakreetakul, Ratiya Pongpisutta, Masao Arakawa, Sotaro Chiba

    Viruses   13 ( 11 )   2269   2021.11

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    Partitiviruses are one of the most prevalent double-stranded RNA viruses that have been identified mostly in filamentous fungi and plants. Partitiviruses generally infect host fungi asymptomatically but infrequently exert significant effect(s) on morphology and virulence, thus being considered a potential source of biological control agents against pathogenic fungi. In this study, we performed a screening for mycoviruses of a collection of Thai isolates of rice fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae, a causal agent of rice aggregated sheath spot disease. As a result, 36% of tested isolates carried potentially viral double-stranded RNAs with sizes ranging from 2 to 3 kbp. By conventional cDNA library construction and RNA-seq, we determined six new alphapartitiviruses that infected three isolates: tentatively named Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae partitivirus 1 to 6 (RosPV1-6). Furthermore, RT-PCR detection of each virus revealed their omnipresent nature in different R. oryzaesativae isolates. Although virus-curing of basidiomycetous fungi is generally difficult, our repeated attempts successfully obtained virus-free (for RosPV1, RosPV2, and uncharacterized partitiviruses), isogenic strain of R. oryzae-sativae TSS190442. The virus-cured strain showed slightly faster colony growth on the synthetic media and severe symptom development on the rice sheath compared to its virus-infected counterpart. Overall, this study shed light on the distribution of partitiviruses in R. oryzae-sativae in a paddy environment and exemplified a virus-curing protocol that may be applicable for other basidiomycetous fungi.

    DOI: 10.3390/v13112269

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Nyamiviridae 2021. International journal

    Ralf G Dietzgen, Andrew E Firth, Dàohóng Jiāng, Sandra Junglen, Hideki Kondo, Jens H Kuhn, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Nikos Vasilakis, Ictv Report Consortium

    The Journal of general virology   102 ( 11 )   2021.11

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    Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales, with unsegmented (except for members of the genus Tapwovirus), negative-sense RNA genomes of 10-13 kb. Nyamviruses have a genome organisation and content similar to that of other mononegaviruses. Nyamiviridae includes several genera that form monophyletic clades on phylogenetic analysis of the RNA polymerase. Nyamiviruses have been found associated with diverse invertebrates as well as land- and seabirds. Members of the genera Nyavirus and Socyvirus produce enveloped, spherical virions. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Nyamiviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/nyamiviridae.

    DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001681

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  • Epidemic progress of beet necrotic yellow vein virus: Evidence from an investigation in Japan spanning half a century

    Ryo Nakagami, Sotaro Chiba, Naoto Yoshida, Yoshiteru Senoo, Minako Iketani-Saito, Satoru Iketani, Hideki Kondo, Tetsuo Tamada

    PLANT PATHOLOGY   2021.11

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    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is the causal agent of rhizomania, the most serious sugar beet disease worldwide. Since the first finding in Japan in 1969, BNYVV became widespread throughout Hokkaido in a few decades and led to the introduction of Rz1-resistant sugar beet cultivars in the 1990s. Here, we report the historical progress of the BNYVV epidemic in Hokkaido from 1969 to 2019. Previous analysis on samples from 1991 showed that BNYVV isolates were classified into three strains (named O, D, and T) based on the RNA3-encoded p25 gene. The O-type viruses were widely detected in Hokkaido, while the D- and T-type viruses were detected in limited areas. The RNA5, encoding the p26 gene, was initially contained in some D- and O-type isolates but not in any T-type isolates. Interestingly, recent sample analysis revealed that RNA5-containing T-type viruses, seemingly more virulent than the other two strains, were widely detected in Hokkaido. Additionally, a small group of virus isolates harbouring a new p25 gene (named C) was found in limited areas. These results suggest that the T-type viruses, which accompanied RNA5, have been preferentially spread from a limited area to other districts over the last few decades and that this spread might be strongly associated with the recent introduction of Rz1-resistant sugar beet cultivars. BNYVV-positive samples also contained mainly beet soil-borne virus and traces of beet virus Q, both of which are the first to be recorded in Japan.

    DOI: 10.1111/ppa.13504

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  • A second capsidless hadakavirus strain with 10 positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomic segments from Fusarium nygamai. International journal

    Haris Ahmed Khan, Yukiyo Sato, Hideki Kondo, Atif Jamal, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Archives of virology   166 ( 10 )   2711 - 2722   2021.10

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    A unique capsidless virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (hadakavirus 1, HadV1), a member of the extended picorna-like supergroup, was isolated previously from the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Here, we describe the molecular and biological characterisation of a second hadakavirus strain from Fusarium nygamai, which has not been investigated in detail previously as a virus host. This virus, hadakavirus 1 strain 1NL (HadV1-1NL), has features similar to the first hadakavirus, HadV1-7n, despite having a different number of segments (10 for HadV1-1NL vs. 11 for HadV1-7n). The 10 genomic RNA segments of HadV1-1NL range in size from 0.9 kb to 2.5 kb. All HadV1-1NL segments show 67% to 86% local nucleotide sequence identity to their HadV1-7n counterparts, whereas HadV1-1NL has no homolog of HadV1-7n RNA8, which encodes a zinc-finger motif. Another interesting feature is the possible coding incapability of HadV1-1NL RNA10. HadV1-1NL was predicted to be capsidless based on the RNase A susceptibility of its replicative form dsRNA. Phenotypic comparison of multiple virus-infected and virus-free single-spore isolates indicated asymptomatic infection by HadV1-1NL. Less-efficient vertical transmission via spores was observed as the infected fungal colonies from which the spores were derived became older, as was observed for HadV1-7n. This study shows a second example of a hadakavirus that appears to have unusual features.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00705-021-05176-x

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  • Cryphonectria nitschkei chrysovirus 1 with unique molecular features and a very narrow host range. International journal

    Sabitree Shahi, Sotaro Chiba, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Virology   554   55 - 65   2021.2

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    Cryphonectria nitschkei chrysovirus 1 (CnCV1), was described earlier from an ascomycetous fungus, Cryphonectria nitschkei strain OB5/11, collected in Japan; its partial sequence was reported a decade ago. Complete sequencing of the four genomic dsRNA segments revealed molecular features similar to but distinct from previously reported members of the family Chrysoviridae. Unique features include the presence of a mini-cistron preceding the major large open reading frame in each genomic segment. Common features include the presence of CAA repeats in the 5'-untranslated regions and conserved terminal sequences. CnCV1-OB5/11 could be laterally transferred to C. nitschkei and its relatives C. radicalis and C. naterciae via coculturing, virion transfection and protoplast fusion, but not to fungal species other than the three species mentioned above, even within the genus Cryphonectria, suggesting a very narrow host range. Phenotypic comparison of a few sets of CnCV1-infected and -free isogenic strains showed symptomless infection in new hosts.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2020.11.011

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  • Identification of an RNA Silencing Suppressor Encoded by a Symptomless Fungal Hypovirus, Cryphonectria Hypovirus 4. International journal

    Annisa Aulia, Kiwamu Hyodo, Sakae Hisano, Hideki Kondo, Bradley I Hillman, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Biology   10 ( 2 )   2021.1

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    Previously, we have reported the ability of a symptomless hypovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 4 (CHV4) of the chestnut blight fungus to facilitate stable infection by a co-infecting mycoreovirus 2 (MyRV2)-likely through the inhibitory effect of CHV4 on RNA silencing (Aulia et al., Virology, 2019). In this study, the N-terminal portion of the CHV4 polyprotein, termed p24, is identified as an autocatalytic protease capable of suppressing host antiviral RNA silencing. Using a bacterial expression system, CHV4 p24 is shown to cleave autocatalytically at the di-glycine peptide (Gly214-Gly215) of the polyprotein through its protease activity. Transgenic expression of CHV4 p24 in Cryphonectria parasitica suppresses the induction of one of the key genes of the antiviral RNA silencing, dicer-like 2, and stabilizes the infection of RNA silencing-susceptible virus MyRV2. This study shows functional similarity between CHV4 p24 and its homolog p29, encoded by the symptomatic prototype hypovirus CHV1.

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  • 2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. International journal

    Jens H Kuhn, Scott Adkins, Daniela Alioto, Sergey V Alkhovsky, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Simon J Anthony, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, María A Ayllón, Justin Bahl, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Matthew J Ballinger, Tomáš Bartonička, Christopher Basler, Sina Bavari, Martin Beer, Dennis A Bente, Éric Bergeron, Brian H Bird, Carol Blair, Kim R Blasdell, Steven B Bradfute, Rachel Breyta, Thomas Briese, Paul A Brown, Ursula J Buchholz, Michael J Buchmeier, Alexander Bukreyev, Felicity Burt, Nihal Buzkan, Charles H Calisher, Mengji Cao, Inmaculada Casas, John Chamberlain, Kartik Chandran, Rémi N Charrel, Biao Chen, Michela Chiumenti, Il-Ryong Choi, J Christopher S Clegg, Ian Crozier, John V da Graça, Elena Dal Bó, Alberto M R Dávila, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Xavier de Lamballerie, Rik L de Swart, Patrick L Di Bello, Nicholas Di Paola, Francesco Di Serio, Ralf G Dietzgen, Michele Digiaro, Valerian V Dolja, Olga Dolnik, Michael A Drebot, Jan Felix Drexler, Ralf Dürrwald, Lucie Dufkova, William G Dundon, W Paul Duprex, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Hideki Ebihara, Toufic Elbeaino, Koray Ergünay, Jorlan Fernandes, Anthony R Fooks, Pierre B H Formenty, Leonie F Forth, Ron A M Fouchier, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Selma Gago-Zachert, George Fú Gāo, María Laura García, Adolfo García-Sastre, Aura R Garrison, Aiah Gbakima, Tracey Goldstein, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, Anthony Griffiths, Martin H Groschup, Stephan Günther, Alexandro Guterres, Roy A Hall, John Hammond, Mohamed Hassan, Jussi Hepojoki, Satu Hepojoki, Udo Hetzel, Roger Hewson, Bernd Hoffmann, Seiji Hongo, Dirk Höper, Masayuki Horie, Holly R Hughes, Timothy H Hyndman, Amara Jambai, Rodrigo Jardim, Dàohóng Jiāng, Qi Jin, Gilda B Jonson, Sandra Junglen, Serpil Karadağ, Karen E Keller, Boris Klempa, Jonas Klingström, Gary Kobinger, Hideki Kondō, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Gael Kurath, Ivan V Kuzmin, Lies Laenen, Robert A Lamb, Amy J Lambert, Stanley L Langevin, Benhur Lee, Elba R S Lemos, Eric M Leroy, Dexin Li, Jiànróng Lǐ, Mifang Liang, Wénwén Liú, Yàn Liú, Igor S Lukashevich, Piet Maes, William Marciel de Souza, Marco Marklewitz, Sergio H Marshall, Giovanni P Martelli, Robert R Martin, Shin-Yi L Marzano, Sébastien Massart, John W McCauley, Nicole Mielke-Ehret, Angelantonio Minafra, Maria Minutolo, Ali Mirazimi, Hans-Peter Mühlbach, Elke Mühlberger, Rayapati Naidu, Tomohide Natsuaki, Beatriz Navarro, José A Navarro, Sergey V Netesov, Gabriele Neumann, Norbert Nowotny, Márcio R T Nunes, Are Nylund, Arnfinn L Økland, Renata C Oliveira, Gustavo Palacios, Vicente Pallas, Bernadett Pályi, Anna Papa, Colin R Parrish, Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Janusz T Pawęska, Susan Payne, Daniel R Pérez, Florian Pfaff, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Aziz-Ul Rahman, Pedro L Ramos-González, Renato O Resende, Carina A Reyes, Bertus K Rima, Víctor Romanowski, Gabriel Robles Luna, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Jonathan A Runstadler, Daniel Ruzek, Sead Sabanadzovic, Jiří Salát, Amadou Alpha Sall, Maria S Salvato, Kamil Sarpkaya, Takahide Sasaya, Martin Schwemmle, Muhammad Z Shabbir, Xiǎohóng Shí, Zhènglì Shí, Yukio Shirako, Peter Simmonds, Jana Širmarová, Manuela Sironi, Sophie Smither, Teemu Smura, Jin-Won Song, Kirsten M Spann, Jessica R Spengler, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Petra Straková, Ayato Takada, Robert B Tesh, Natalie J Thornburg, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Massimo Turina, Ioannis Tzanetakis, Rainer G Ulrich, Anna Maria Vaira, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Arvind Varsani, Nikos Vasilakis, Martin Verbeek, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, Hui Wang, Jianwei Wang, Xifeng Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, Tàiyún Wèi, Heather Wells, Anna E Whitfield, John V Williams, Yuri I Wolf, Zhìqiáng Wú, Xin Yang, Xīnglóu Yáng, Xuejie Yu, Natalya Yutin, F Murilo Zerbini, Tong Zhang, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Guohui Zhou, Xueping Zhou

    Archives of virology   165 ( 12 )   3023 - 3072   2020.12

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    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

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  • Establishment of Neurospora crassa as a model organism for fungal virology. International journal

    Shinji Honda, Ana Eusebio-Cope, Shuhei Miyashita, Ayumi Yokoyama, Annisa Aulia, Sabitree Shahi, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Nature communications   11 ( 1 )   5627 - 5627   2020.11

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    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is used as a model organism for genetics, developmental biology and molecular biology. Remarkably, it is not known to host or to be susceptible to infection with any viruses. Here, we identify diverse RNA viruses in N. crassa and other Neurospora species, and show that N. crassa supports the replication of these viruses as well as some viruses from other fungi. Several encapsidated double-stranded RNA viruses and capsid-less positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses can be experimentally introduced into N. crassa protoplasts or spheroplasts. This allowed us to examine viral replication and RNAi-mediated antiviral responses in this organism. We show that viral infection upregulates the transcription of RNAi components, and that Dicer proteins (DCL-1, DCL-2) and an Argonaute (QDE-2) participate in suppression of viral replication. Our study thus establishes N. crassa as a model system for the study of host-virus interactions.

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  • Pathogenetic roles of beet necrotic yellow vein virus RNA5 in the exacerbation of symptoms and yield reduction, development of scab-like symptoms, andRz1-resistance breaking in sugar beet

    Tetsuo Tamada, Hirokatsu Uchino, Toshimi Kusume, Minako Iketani-Saito, Sotaro Chiba, Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo

    PLANT PATHOLOGY   70 ( 1 )   219 - 232   2020.9

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    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) generally has a four-segmented positive-sense RNA genome (RNAs 1-4), but some European and most Asian strains have an additional segment, RNA5. This study examined the effect of RNA5 and RNA3 on different sugar beet cultivars using aPolymyxa-mediated inoculation system under field and laboratory conditions. In field tests, the degree of sugar yield served as an index for assessing the virulence of BNYVV strains. Japanese A-II type isolates without RNA5 caused mostly 15%-90% sugar yield reductions, depending on the susceptibility of sugar beet cultivars, whereas the isolates with RNA5 induced more than 90% yield losses in the seven susceptible cultivars, but small yield losses in oneRz1-resistant and Rizor cultivars. However, a laboratory-produced isolate containing RNA5 but lacking RNA3 caused higher yield losses in Rizor than in susceptible plants, and induced scab-like symptoms on the root surface of both susceptible and resistant plants. In laboratory tests, A-II type isolates without RNA5 had low viral RNA accumulation levels in roots of Rizor andRz1-resistant plants at early stages of infection, but in the presence of RNA5, viral RNA3 accumulation levels increased remarkably. This increased RNA3 accumulation was not observed in roots of the WB42 accession with theRz2gene. In contrast, the presence of RNA3 did not affect RNA5 accumulation levels. Collectively, this study demonstrated that RNA5 is involved in the development of scab-like symptoms and the enhancement of RNA3 accumulation, and suggests these characteristics of RNA5 are associated withRz1-resistance breaking.

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  • Hadaka Virus 1: a Capsidless Eleven-Segmented Positive-Sense Single-Stranded RNA Virus from a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. Reviewed International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Wajeeha Shamsi, Atif Jamal, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    mBio   11 ( 3 )   2020.5

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    The search for viruses infecting fungi, or mycoviruses, has extended our knowledge about the diversity of RNA viruses, as exemplified by the discovery of polymycoviruses, a phylogenetic group of multisegmented RNA viruses with unusual forms. The genomic RNAs of known polymycoviruses, which show a phylogenetic affinity for animal positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)RNA] viruses such as caliciviruses, are comprised of four conserved segments with an additional zero to four segments. The double-stranded form of polymycovirus genomic RNA is assumed to be associated with a virally encoded protein (proline-alanine-serine-rich protein [PASrp]) in either of two manners: a capsidless colloidal form or a filamentous encapsidated form. Detailed molecular characterizations of polymycoviruses, however, have been conducted for only a few strains. Here, a novel polymyco-related virus named Hadaka virus 1 (HadV1), from the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum, was characterized. The genomic RNA of HadV1 consisted of an 11-segmented positive-sense RNA with highly conserved terminal nucleotide sequences. HadV1 shared the three conserved segments with known polymycoviruses but lacked the PASrp-encoding segment. Unlike the known polymycoviruses and encapsidated viruses, HadV1 was not pelleted by conventional ultracentrifugation, possibly due to the lack of PASrp. This result implied that HadV1 exists only as a soluble form with naked RNA. Nevertheless, the 11 genomic segments of HadV1 have been stably maintained through host subculturing and conidiation. Taken together, the results of this study revealed a virus with a potential novel virus lifestyle, carrying many genomic segments without typical capsids or PASrp-associated forms.IMPORTANCE Fungi collectively host various RNA viruses. Examples include encapsidated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses with diverse numbers of genomic segments (from 1 to 12) and capsidless viruses with nonsegmented (+)RNA genomes. Recently, viruses with unusual intermediate features of an infectious entity between encapsidated dsRNA viruses and capsidless (+)RNA viruses were found. They are called polymycoviruses, which typically have four to eight dsRNA genomic segments associated with one of the virus-encoded proteins and are phylogenetically distantly related to animal (+)RNA caliciviruses. Here, we identified a novel virus phylogenetically related to polymycoviruses, from the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum The virus, termed Hadaka virus 1 (HadV1), has 11 (+)RNA genomic segments, the largest number in known (+)RNA viruses. Nevertheless, HadV1 lacked a typical structural protein of polymycoviruses and was not pelleted by standard ultracentrifugation, implying an unusual capsidless nature of HadV1. This study reveals a potential novel lifestyle of multisegmented RNA viruses.

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  • Reply to Serra et al.: Nucleotide substitutions in plant viroid genomes that multiply in phytopathogenic fungi. Reviewed International journal

    Shuang Wei, Ruiling Bian, Ida Bagus Andika, Erbo Niu, Qian Liu, Hideki Kondo, Liu Yang, Hongsheng Zhou, Tianxing Pang, Ziqian Lian, Xili Liu, Yunfeng Wu, Liying Sun

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   117 ( 19 )   10129 - 10130   2020.5

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  • Diversity and epidemiology of plant rhabdoviruses. International journal

    Ralf G Dietzgen, Nicolas E Bejerman, Michael M Goodin, Colleen M Higgins, Ordom B Huot, Hideki Kondo, Kathleen M Martin, Anna E Whitfield

    Virus research   281   197942 - 197942   2020.5

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    Plant rhabdoviruses are recognized by their large bacilliform particles and for being able to replicate in both their plant hosts and arthropod vectors. This review highlights selected, better studied examples of plant rhabdoviruses, their genetic diversity, epidemiology and interactions with plant hosts and arthropod vectors: Alfalfa dwarf virus is classified as a cytorhabdovirus, but its multifunctional phosphoprotein is localized to the plant cell nucleus. Lettuce necrotic yellows virus subtypes may differentially interact with their aphid vectors leading to changes in virus population diversity. Interactions of rhabdoviruses that infect rice, maize and other grains are tightly associated with their specific leafhopper and planthopper vectors. Future outbreaks of vector-borne nucleorhabdoviruses may be predicted based on a world distribution map of the insect vectors. The epidemiology of coffee ringspot virus and its Brevipalpus mite vector is illustrated highlighting the symptomatology and biology of a dichorhavirus and potential impacts of climate change on its epidemiology.

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  • Facilitative and synergistic interactions between fungal and plant viruses. Reviewed International journal

    Ruiling Bian, Ida Bagus Andika, Tianxing Pang, Ziqian Lian, Shuang Wei, Erbo Niu, Yunfeng Wu, Hideki Kondo, Xili Liu, Liying Sun

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   117 ( 7 )   3779 - 3788   2020.2

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    Plants and fungi are closely associated through parasitic or symbiotic relationships in which bidirectional exchanges of cellular contents occur. Recently, a plant virus was shown to be transmitted from a plant to a fungus, but it is unknown whether fungal viruses can also cross host barriers and spread to plants. In this study, we investigated the infectivity of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1, family Hypoviridae), a capsidless, positive-sense (+), single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fungal virus in a model plant, Nicotiana tabacum CHV1 replicated in mechanically inoculated leaves but did not spread systemically, but coinoculation with an unrelated plant (+)ssRNA virus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, family Virgaviridae), or other plant RNA viruses, enabled CHV1 to systemically infect the plant. Likewise, CHV1 systemically infected transgenic plants expressing the TMV movement protein, and coinfection with TMV further enhanced CHV1 accumulation in these plants. Conversely, CHV1 infection increased TMV accumulation when TMV was introduced into a plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium graminearum In the in planta F. graminearum inoculation experiment, we demonstrated that TMV infection of either the plant or the fungus enabled the horizontal transfer of CHV1 from the fungus to the plant, whereas CHV1 infection enhanced fungal acquisition of TMV. Our results demonstrate two-way facilitative interactions between the plant and fungal viruses that promote cross-kingdom virus infections and suggest the presence of plant-fungal-mediated routes for dissemination of fungal and plant viruses in nature.

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  • Molecular Characterization of a Novel Polymycovirus From Penicillium janthinellum With a Focus on Its Genome-Associated PASrp. International journal

    Yukiyo Sato, Atif Jamal, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Frontiers in microbiology   11   592789 - 592789   2020

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    The genus Polymycovirus of the family Polymycoviridae accommodates fungal RNA viruses with different genomic segment numbers (four, five, or eight). It is suggested that four members form no true capsids and one forms filamentous virus particles enclosing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). In both cases, viral dsRNA is associated with a viral protein termed "proline-alanine-serine-rich protein" (PASrp). These forms are assumed to be the infectious entity. However, the detailed molecular characteristics of PASrps remain unclear. Here, we identified a novel five-segmented polymycovirus, Penicillium janthinellum polymycovirus 1 (PjPmV1), and characterized its purified fraction form in detail. The PjPmV1 had five dsRNA segments associated with PASrp. Density gradient ultracentrifugation of the PASrp-associated PjPmV1 dsRNA revealed its uneven structure and a broad fractionation profile distinct from that of typical encapsidated viruses. Moreover, PjPmV1-PASrp interacted in vitro with various nucleic acids in a sequence-non-specific manner. These PjPmV1 features are discussed in view of the diversification of genomic segment numbers of the genus Polymycovirus.

    DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.592789

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  • Diverse Partitiviruses From the Phytopathogenic Fungus, Rosellinia necatrix. Reviewed International journal

    Paul Telengech, Sakae Hisano, Cyrus Mugambi, Kiwamu Hyodo, Juan Manuel Arjona-López, Carlos José López-Herrera, Satoko Kanematsu, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Frontiers in microbiology   11   1064 - 1064   2020

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    Partitiviruses (dsRNA viruses, family Partitiviridae) are ubiquitously detected in plants and fungi. Although previous surveys suggested their omnipresence in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, only a few of them have been molecularly and biologically characterized thus far. We report the characterization of a total of 20 partitiviruses from 16 R. necatrix strains belonging to 15 new species, for which "Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 11-Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 25" were proposed, and 5 previously reported species. The newly identified partitiviruses have been taxonomically placed in two genera, Alphapartitivirus, and Betapartitivirus. Some partitiviruses were transfected into reference strains of the natural host, R. necatrix, and an experimental host, Cryphonectria parasitica, using purified virions. A comparative analysis of resultant transfectants revealed interesting differences and similarities between the RNA accumulation and symptom induction patterns of R. necatrix and C. parasitica. Other interesting findings include the identification of a probable reassortment event and a quintuple partitivirus infection of a single fungal strain. These combined results provide a foundation for further studies aimed at elucidating mechanisms that underly the differences observed.

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  • A symptomless hypovirus, CHV4, facilitates stable infection of the chestnut blight fungus by a coinfecting reovirus likely through suppression of antiviral RNA silencing. Reviewed

    Aulia A, Andika IB, Kondo H, Hillman BI, Suzuki N

    Virology   533   99 - 107   2019.7

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    Field-collected US strain C18 of Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, was earlier reported to be infected by a double-stranded RNA virus, mycoreovirus 2 (MyRV2). Next-generation sequencing has revealed co-infection of C18 by a positive-strand RNA virus, hypovirus 4 (CHV4). The current molecular and genetic analyses showed interesting commensal interactions between the two viruses. CHV4 facilitated the stable infection and enhanced vertical transmission of MyRV2, which was readily lost during subculturing and showed reduced vertical transmission in single infections. Deletion of a key antiviral RNA silencing gene, dcl2, in isolate C18 increased stability of MyRV2 in single infections. The ability of CHV4 to facilitate stable infection with MyRV2 appears to be associated with the inhibitory effect of CHV4 on RNA silencing via compromising the induction of transcriptional up-regulation of dcl2. These results suggest that natural infection of isolate C18 by MyRV2 in the field was facilitated by CHV4 co-infection.

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  • Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2019. International journal

    Gaya K Amarasinghe, María A Ayllón, Yīmíng Bào, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Kim R Blasdell, Thomas Briese, Paul A Brown, Alexander Bukreyev, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Ursula J Buchholz, Camila Chabi-Jesus, Kartik Chandran, Chiara Chiapponi, Ian Crozier, Rik L de Swart, Ralf G Dietzgen, Olga Dolnik, Jan F Drexler, Ralf Dürrwald, William G Dundon, W Paul Duprex, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Anthony R Fooks, Pierre B H Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Anthony Griffiths, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Horie, Timothy H Hyndman, Dàohóng Jiāng, Elliott W Kitajima, Gary P Kobinger, Hideki Kondō, Gael Kurath, Ivan V Kuzmin, Robert A Lamb, Antonio Lavazza, Benhur Lee, Davide Lelli, Eric M Leroy, Jiànróng Lǐ, Piet Maes, Shin-Yi L Marzano, Ana Moreno, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V Netesov, Norbert Nowotny, Are Nylund, Arnfinn L Økland, Gustavo Palacios, Bernadett Pályi, Janusz T Pawęska, Susan L Payne, Alice Prosperi, Pedro Luis Ramos-González, Bertus K Rima, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Mǎng Shī, Peter Simmonds, Sophie J Smither, Enrica Sozzi, Kirsten Spann, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Robert B Tesh, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Nikos Vasilakis, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, Lin-Fa Wang, Anna E Whitfield, John V Williams, F Murilo Zerbini, Tāo Zhāng, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Jens H Kuhn

    Archives of virology   164 ( 7 )   1967 - 1980   2019.7

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    In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the addition of four new subfamilies and 12 new genera and the creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

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  • Novel Victorivirus from a Pakistani Isolate of Alternaria alternata Lacking a Typical Translational Stop/Restart Sequence Signature. Reviewed International journal

    Jamal A, Sato Y, Shahi S, Shamsi W, Kondo H, Suzuki N

    Viruses   11 ( 6 )   2019.6

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    The family Totiviridae currently contains five genera Totivirus, Victorivirus, Leishmavirus, Trichomonasvirus, and Giardiavirus. Members in this family generally have a set of two-open reading frame (ORF) elements in their genome with the 5'-proximal ORF (ORF1) encoding a capsid protein (CP) and the 3'-proximal one (ORF2) for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). How the downstream open reading frames (ORFs) are expressed is genus-specific. All victoriviruses characterized thus far appear to use the stop/restart translation mechanism, allowing for the expression of two separate protein products from bicitronic genome-sized viral mRNA, while the totiviruses use a -1 ribosomal frame-shifting that leads to a fusion product of CP and RdRp. We report the biological and molecular characterization of a novel victorivirus termed Alternaria alternata victorivirus 1 (AalVV1) isolated from Alternaria alternata in Pakistan. The phylogenetic and molecular analyses showed AalVV1 to be distinct from previously reported victoriviruses. AalVV1 appears to have a sequence signature required for the -1 frame-shifting at the ORF1/2 junction region, rather than a stop/restart key mediator. By contrast, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses of purified virion preparations suggested the expression of two protein products, not a CP-RdRp fusion product. How these proteins are expressed is discussed in this study. Possible effects of infection by this virus were tested in two fungal species: A. alternata and RNA silencing proficient and deficient strains of Cryphonectria parasitica, a model filamentous fungus. AalVV1 showed symptomless infection in all of these fungal strains, even in the RNA silencing deficient C. parasitica strain.

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  • Symptomatic plant viroid infections in phytopathogenic fungi. Reviewed

    Wei S, Bian R, Andika IB, Niu E, Liu Q, Kondo H, Yang L, Zhou H, Pang T, Lian Z, Liu X, Wu Y, Sun L

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   116 ( 26 )   13042 - 13050   2019.6

  • Isolation and characterization of a novel mycovirus infecting an edible mushroom, Grifola frondosa. Reviewed

    Akiko Komatsu, Hideki Kondo, Masayuki Sato, Atsushi Kurahashi, Kozo Nishibori, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Fumihiro Fujimori

    Mycoscience   60   211 - 220   2019.5

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  • Molecular and biological characterization of a novel botybirnavirus identified from a Pakistani isolate of Alternaria alternata. Reviewed International journal

    Shamsi W, Sato Y, Jamal A, Shahi S, Kondo H, Suzuki N, Bhatti MF

    Virus research   263   119 - 128   2019.4

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    Mycoviruses ubiquitously infect a wide range of fungal hosts in the world. The current study reports a novel double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, termed Alternaria alternata botybirnavirus 1 (AaBbV1), infecting a Pakistani strain, 4a, of a phytopathogenic ascomycetous fungus Alternaria alternata. A combined approach of next generation and conventional terminal end sequencing of the viral genome revealed that the virus is a distinct member of the genus Botybirnavirus. This virus comprised of two segments (dsRNA1 and dsRNA2) of sizes 6127 bp and 5860 bp respectively. The dsRNA1-encoded protein carrying the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain showed 61% identity to the counterpart of Botrytis porri botybirnavirus 1 and lower levels of amino acid similarity with those of other putative botybirnaviruses and the fungal dsRNA viruses such as members of the families Totiviridae, Chrysoviridae and Megabirnaviridae. The dsRNA2-encoded protein showed resemblance with corresponding proteins of botybirnaviruses. Electron microscopy showed AaBbV1 to form spherical particles of 40 nm in diameter. Biochemical analyses showed that two structural proteins encoded by dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 underwent processing to some extent during particle purification, resulting in the appearance of multiple smaller products. Phylogenetic analyses of structural proteins suggested that their coding region might have been duplicated once and maintained without recombination. Protoplast fusion technique allowed for the introduction of AaBbV1 into a virus free Japanese strain of A. alternata and demonstrated its symptomless infection by the virus. Interesting similarities and dissimilarities between AaBbV1 and other previously reported botybirnaviruses are also discussed.

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  • Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: second update 2018. International journal

    Piet Maes, Gaya K Amarasinghe, María A Ayllón, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Kim R Blasdell, Thomas Briese, Paul A Brown, Alexander Bukreyev, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Ursula J Buchholz, Kartik Chandran, Ian Crozier, Rik L de Swart, Ralf G Dietzgen, Olga Dolnik, Leslie L Domier, Jan F Drexler, Ralf Dürrwald, William G Dundon, W Paul Duprex, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Anthony R Fooks, Pierre B H Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Elodie Ghedin, Anthony Griffiths, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Horie, Julia L Hurwitz, Timothy H Hyndman, Dàohóng Jiāng, Gary P Kobinger, Hideki Kondō, Gael Kurath, Ivan V Kuzmin, Robert A Lamb, Benhur Lee, Eric M Leroy, Jiànróng Lǐ, Shin-Yi L Marzano, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V Netesov, Norbert Nowotny, Gustavo Palacios, Bernadett Pályi, Janusz T Pawęska, Susan L Payne, Bertus K Rima, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Peter Simmonds, Sophie J Smither, Qisheng Song, Timothy Song, Kirsten Spann, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Robert B Tesh, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Bernadette van den Hoogen, Nikos Vasilakis, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, David Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, Anna E Whitfield, John V Williams, Gōngyín Yè, F Murilo Zerbini, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Jens H Kuhn

    Archives of virology   164 ( 4 )   1233 - 1244   2019.4

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    In October 2018, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the establishment of three new families and three new genera, abolishment of two genera, and creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

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  • Investigation of Host Range of and Host Defense against a Mitochondrially Replicating Mitovirus. Reviewed

    Shahi S, Eusebio-Cope A, Kondo H, Hillman BI, Suzuki N

    Journal of virology   93 ( 6 )   2019.3

  • Horizontal Transfer of a Retrotransposon from the Rice Planthopper to the Genome of an Insect DNA Virus. Reviewed

    Yang Q, Zhang Y, Andika IB, Liao Z, Kondo H, Lu Y, Cheng Y, Li L, He Y, He Y, Qi Y, Sun Z, Wu Y, Yan F, Chen J, Li J

    Journal of virology   93 ( 6 )   2019.3

  • Dicer functions transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally in a multilayer antiviral defense. Reviewed

    Andika IB, Kondo H, Suzuki N

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   116 ( 6 )   2274 - 2281   2019.2

  • Identification of a Novel Hypovirulence-Inducing Hypovirus From Alternaria alternata. Reviewed

    Li H, Bian R, Liu Q, Yang L, Pang T, Salaipeth L, Andika IB, Kondo H, Sun L

    Frontiers in microbiology   10   1076   2019

  • Plant rhabdoviruses-their origins and vector interactions. International journal

    Anna E Whitfield, Ordom Brian Huot, Kathleen M Martin, Hideki Kondo, Ralf G Dietzgen

    Current opinion in virology   33   198 - 207   2018.12

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    Classical plant rhabdoviruses infect monocot and dicot plants, have unsegmented negative-sense RNA genomes and have been taxonomically classified in the genera Cytorhabdovirus and Nucleorhabdovirus. These viruses replicate in their hemipteran vectors and are transmitted in a circulative-propagative mode and virus infection persists for the life of the insect. Based on the discovery of numerous novel rhabdoviruses in arthropods during metagenomic studies and extensive phylogenetic analyses of the family Rhabdoviridae, it is hypothesized that plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are derived from insect viruses. Analyses of viral gene function in plants and insects is beginning to reveal conserved and unique biology for these plant viruses in the two diverse hosts. New tools for insect molecular biology and infectious clones for plant rhabdoviruses are increasing our understanding of the lifestyles of these viruses.

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  • Novel Mitoviruses and a Unique Tymo-Like Virus in Hypovirulent and Virulent Strains of the Fusarium Head Blight Fungus, Fusarium boothii. Reviewed

    Mizutani Y, Abraham A, Uesaka K, Kondo H, Suga H, Suzuki N, Chiba S

    Viruses   10 ( 11 )   2018.10

  • Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018. International journal

    Gaya K Amarasinghe, Nidia G Aréchiga Ceballos, Ashley C Banyard, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Andrew J Bennett, Kim R Blasdell, Thomas Briese, Alexander Bukreyev, Yíngyún Caì, Charles H Calisher, Cristine Campos Lawson, Kartik Chandran, Colin A Chapman, Charles Y Chiu, Kang-Seuk Choi, Peter L Collins, Ralf G Dietzgen, Valerian V Dolja, Olga Dolnik, Leslie L Domier, Ralf Dürrwald, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Hideki Ebihara, Juan E Echevarría, Anthony R Fooks, Pierre B H Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Conrad M Freuling, Elodie Ghedin, Tony L Goldberg, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Horie, Timothy H Hyndman, Dàohóng Jiāng, Robert Kityo, Gary P Kobinger, Hideki Kondō, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Gael Kurath, Robert A Lamb, Benhur Lee, Eric M Leroy, Piet Maes, Andrea Maisner, Denise A Marston, Sunil Kumar Mor, Thomas Müller, Elke Mühlberger, Víctor Manuel Neira Ramírez, Sergey V Netesov, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Norbert Nowotny, Gustavo Palacios, Jean L Patterson, Janusz T Pawęska, Susan L Payne, Karla Prieto, Bertus K Rima, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Martin Schwemmle, Stuart Siddell, Sophie J Smither, Qisheng Song, Timothy Song, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Robert B Tesh, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, Keizō Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Nikos Vasilakis, Sonia Vázquez-Morón, Claudio Verdugo, Viktor E Volchkov, Victoria Wahl, Peter J Walker, David Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, James F X Wellehan, Michael R Wiley, Anna E Whitfield, Yuri I Wolf, Gōngyín Yè, Yǒng-Zhèn Zhāng, Jens H Kuhn

    Archives of virology   163 ( 8 )   2283 - 2294   2018.8

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    In 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 12 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hypoviridae. International journal

    Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A Ghabrial, Kook-Hyung Kim, Michael Pearson, Shin-Yi L Marzano, Hajime Yaegashi, Jiatao Xie, Lihua Guo, Hideki Kondo, Igor Koloniuk, Bradley I Hillman, Ictv Report Consortium

    The Journal of general virology   99 ( 5 )   615 - 616   2018.5

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    The Hypoviridae, comprising one genus, Hypovirus, is a family of capsidless viruses with positive-sense, ssRNA genomes of 9.1-12.7 kb that possess either a single large ORF or two ORFs. The ORFs appear to be translated from genomic RNA by non-canonical mechanisms, i.e. internal ribosome entry site-mediated and stop/restart translation. Hypoviruses have been detected in ascomycetous or basidiomycetous filamentous fungi, and are considered to be replicated in host Golgi-derived, lipid vesicles that contain their dsRNA as a replicative form. Some hypoviruses induce hypovirulence to host fungi, while others do not. This is a summary of the current ICTV report on the taxonomy of the Hypoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hypoviridae.

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  • Novel, diverse RNA viruses from Mediterranean isolates of the phytopathogenic fungus, Rosellinia necatrix: insights into evolutionary biology of fungal viruses Reviewed

    Juan Manuel Arjona-Lopez, Paul Telengech, Atif Jamal, Sakae Hisano, Hideki Kondo, Mery Dafny Yelin, Isabel Arjona-Girona, Satoko Kanematsu, Carlos José Lopez-Herrera, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Environmental Microbiology   20 ( 4 )   1464 - 1483   2018.4

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    To reveal mycovirus diversity, we conducted a search of as-yet-unexplored Mediterranean isolates of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Rosellinia necatrix for virus infections. Of seventy-nine, eleven fungal isolates tested RNA virus-positive, with many showing coinfections, indicating a virus incidence of 14%, which is slightly lower than that (approximately 20%) previously reported for extensive surveys of over 1000 Japanese R. necatrix isolates. All viral sequences were fully or partially characterized by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. These sequences appear to represent isolates of various new species spanning at least 6 established or previously proposed families such as Partiti-, Hypo-, Megabirna-, Yado-kari-, Fusagra- and Fusarividae, as well as a newly proposed family, Megatotiviridae. This observation greatly expands the diversity of R. necatrix viruses, because no hypo-, fusagra- or megatotiviruses were previously reported from R. necatrix. The sequence analyses showed a rare horizontal gene transfer event of the 2A-like protease domain between a dsRNA (phlegivirus) and a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus (hypovirus). Moreover, many of the newly detected viruses showed the closest relation to viruses reported from fungi other than R. necatrix, such as Fusarium spp., which are sympatric to R. necatrix. These combined results imply horizontal virus transfer between these soil-inhabitant fungi.

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  • ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae. International journal

    Peter J Walker, Kim R Blasdell, Charles H Calisher, Ralf G Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Ben Longdon, David M Stone, Robert B Tesh, Noël Tordo, Nikos Vasilakis, Anna E Whitfield, Ictv Report Consortium

    The Journal of general virology   99 ( 4 )   447 - 448   2018.4

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    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

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  • A neo-virus lifestyle exhibited by a (+)ssRNA virus hosted in an unrelated dsRNA virus: Taxonomic and evolutionary considerations.

    Sakae Hisano, Rui Zhang, Md. Iqbal Faruk, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Virus research   2017.11

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    Recent studies illustrate that fungi as virus hosts provides a unique platform for hunting viruses and exploring virus/virus and virus/host interactions. Such studies have revealed a number of as-yet-unreported viruses and virus/virus interactions. Among them is a unique intimate relationship between a (+)ssRNA virus, yado-kari virus (YkV1) and an unrelated dsRNA virus, yado-nushi virus (YnV1). YkV1 dsRNA, a replicated form of YkV1, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are trans-encapsidated by the capsid protein of YnV1. While YnV1 can complete its replication cycle, YkV1 relies on YnV1 for its viability. We previously proposed a model in which YkV1 diverts YnV1 capsids as the replication sites. YkV1 is neither satellite virus nor satellite RNA, because YkV1 appears to encode functional RdRp and enhances YnV1 accumulation. This represents a unique mutualistic virus/virus interplay and similar relations in other virus/host fungus systems are detectable. We propose to establish the family Yadokariviridae that accommodates YkV1 and recently discovered viruses phylogenetically related to YkV1. This article overviews what is known and unknown about the YkV1/YnV1 interactions. Also discussed are the YnV1 Phytoreo_S7 and YkV1 2A-like domains that may have been captured via horizontal transfer during the course of evolution and are conserved across extant diverse RNA viruses. Lastly, evolutionary scenarios are envisioned for YkV1 and YnV1.

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  • Phytopathogenic fungus hosts a plant virus: A naturally occurring cross-kingdom viral infection Reviewed

    Ida Bagus Andika, Shuang Wei, Chunmei Cao, Lakha Salaipeth, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   114 ( 46 )   12267 - 12272   2017.11

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    The transmission of viral infections between plant and fungal hosts has been suspected to occur, based on phylogenetic and other findings, but has not been directly observed in nature. Here, we report the discovery of a natural infection of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani by a plant virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The CMV-infected R. solani strain was obtained from a potato plant growing in Inner Mongolia Province of China, and CMV infection was stable when this fungal strain was cultured in the laboratory. CMV was horizontally transmitted through hyphal anastomosis but not vertically through basidiospores. By inoculation via protoplast transfection with virions, a reference isolate of CMV replicated in R. solani and another phytopathogenic fungus, suggesting that some fungi can serve as alternative hosts to CMV. Importantly, in fungal inoculation experiments under laboratory conditions, R. solani could acquire CMV from an infected plant, as well as transmit the virus to an uninfected plant. This study presents evidence of the transfer of a virus between plant and fungus, and it further expands our understanding of plant-fungus interactions and the spread of plant viruses.

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  • Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2017. International journal

    Gaya K Amarasinghe, Yīmíng Bào, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Martin Beer, Nicolás Bejerman, Kim R Blasdell, Alisa Bochnowski, Thomas Briese, Alexander Bukreyev, Charles H Calisher, Kartik Chandran, Peter L Collins, Ralf G Dietzgen, Olga Dolnik, Ralf Dürrwald, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Hideki Ebihara, Qi Fang, Pierre Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Elodie Ghedin, Robert M Harding, Roger Hewson, Colleen M Higgins, Jian Hong, Masayuki Horie, Anthony P James, Dàohóng Jiāng, Gary P Kobinger, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Robert A Lamb, Benhur Lee, Eric M Leroy, Ming Li, Andrea Maisner, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V Netesov, Norbert Nowotny, Jean L Patterson, Susan L Payne, Janusz T Paweska, Michael N Pearson, Rick E Randall, Peter A Revill, Bertus K Rima, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Martin Schwemmle, Sophie J Smither, Qisheng Song, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Calogero Terregino, Robert B Tesh, Keizo Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Nikos Vasilakis, Viktor E Volchkov, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Peter J Walker, Beibei Wang, David Wang, Fei Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, John H Werren, Anna E Whitfield, Zhichao Yan, Gongyin Ye, Jens H Kuhn

    Archives of virology   162 ( 8 )   2493 - 2504   2017.8

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    In 2017, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by the inclusion of a total of 69 novel species. Five new rhabdovirus genera and one new nyamivirus genus were established to harbor 41 of these species, whereas the remaining new species were assigned to already established genera. Furthermore, non-Latinized binomial species names replaced all paramyxovirus and pneumovirus species names, thereby accomplishing application of binomial species names throughout the entire order. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

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  • Possibility and Challenges of Conversion of Current Virus Species Names to Linnaean Binomials. International journal

    Thomas S Postler, Anna N Clawson, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Christopher F Basler, Sbina Bavari, Mária Benko, Kim R Blasdell, Thomas Briese, Michael J Buchmeier, Alexander Bukreyev, Charles H Calisher, Kartik Chandran, Rémi Charrel, Christopher S Clegg, Peter L Collins, De La Torre Juan Carlos, Joseph L Derisi, Ralf G Dietzgen, Olga Dolnik, Ralf Dürrwald, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Sébastian Emonet, Pierre Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Elodie Ghedin, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Balázs Harrach, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Horie, Dàohóng Jiang, Gary Kobinger, Hideki Kondo, Andrew M Kropinski, Mart Krupovic, Gael Kurath, Robert A Lamb, Eric M Leroy, Igor S Lukashevich, Andrea Maisner, Arcady R Mushegian, Sergey V Netesov, Norbert Nowotny, Jean L Patterson, Susan L Payne, Janusz T PaWeska, Clarence J Peters, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Bertus K Rima, Victor Romanowski, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Sead Sabanadzovic, Hélène Sanfaçon, Maria S Salvato, Martin Schwemmle, Sophie J Smither, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Robert B Tesh, Keizo Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Nikos Vasilakis, Viktor E Volchkov, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Peter J Walker, Lin-Fa Wang, Arvind Varsani, Anna E Whitfield, F Murilo Zerbini, Jens H Kuhn

    Systematic biology   66 ( 3 )   463 - 473   2017.5

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    Botanical, mycological, zoological, and prokaryotic species names follow the Linnaean format, consisting of an italicized Latinized binomen with a capitalized genus name and a lower case species epithet (e.g., Homo sapiens). Virus species names, however, do not follow a uniform format, and, even when binomial, are not Linnaean in style. In this thought exercise, we attempted to convert all currently official names of species included in the virus family Arenaviridae and the virus order Mononegavirales to Linnaean binomials, and to identify and address associated challenges and concerns. Surprisingly, this endeavor was not as complicated or time-consuming as even the authors of this article expected when conceiving the experiment. [Arenaviridae; binomials; ICTV; International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses; Mononegavirales; virus nomenclature; virus taxonomy.].

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  • SAGA complex mediates the transcriptional up-regulation of antiviral RNA silencing Reviewed

    Ida Bagus Andika, Atif Jamal, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   114 ( 17 )   E3499 - E3506   2017.4

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    Pathogen recognition and transcriptional activation of defense-related genes are crucial steps in cellular defense responses. RNA silencing (RNAi) functions as an antiviral defense in eukaryotic organisms. Several RNAi-related genes are known to be transcriptionally up-regulated upon virus infection in some host organisms, but little is known about their induction mechanism. A phytopathogenic ascomycete, Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight fungus), provides a particularly advantageous system to study RNAi activation, because its infection by certain RNA viruses induces the transcription of dicer-like 2 (dcl2) and argonaute-like 2 (agl2), two major RNAi players. To identify cellular factors governing activation of antiviral RNAi in C. parasitica, we developed a screening protocol entailing multiple transformations of the fungus with cDNA of a hypovirus mutant lacking the RNAi suppressor (CHV1-Delta p69), a reporter construct with a GFP gene driven by the dcl2 promoter, and a random mutagenic construct. Screening for GFP-negative colonies allowed the identification of sgf73, a component of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) complex, a well-known transcriptional coactivator. Knockout of other SAGA components showed that the histone acetyltransferase module regulates transcriptional induction of dcl2 and agl2, whereas histone deubiquitinase mediates regulation of agl2 but not dcl2. Interestingly, full-scale induction of agl2 and dcl2 by CHV1 Delta p69 required both DCL2 and AGL2, whereas that by another RNA virus, mycoreovirus 1, required only DCL2, uncovering additional roles for DCL2 and AGL2 in viral recognition and/or RNAi activation. Overall, these results provide insight into the mechanism of RNAi activation.

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  • The family Rhabdoviridae: mono- and bipartite negative-sense RNA viruses with diverse genome organization and common evolutionary origins. International journal

    Ralf G Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Michael M Goodin, Gael Kurath, Nikos Vasilakis

    Virus research   227   158 - 170   2017.1

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    The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the characteristics and diversity of rhabdoviruses, their taxonomic classification, replication mechanism, properties of classical rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus and rhabdoviruses with complex genomes, rhabdoviruses infecting aquatic species, and plant rhabdoviruses with both mono- and bipartite genomes.

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  • Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus VPg Is the Determinant Protein for Breaking eIF4E-Mediated Recessive Resistance in Barley Plants Reviewed

    Huangai Li, Hideki Kondo, Thomas Kuehne, Yukio Shirako

    FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE   7   1449   2016.9

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    In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus) factor(s) responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6) in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10) and rym5-non-breaking (JK05) isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg) is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120, and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when elF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants.

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  • Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016. International journal

    Claudio L Afonso, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Krisztián Bányai, Yīmíng Bào, Christopher F Basler, Sina Bavari, Nicolás Bejerman, Kim R Blasdell, François-Xavier Briand, Thomas Briese, Alexander Bukreyev, Charles H Calisher, Kartik Chandran, Jiāsēn Chéng, Anna N Clawson, Peter L Collins, Ralf G Dietzgen, Olga Dolnik, Leslie L Domier, Ralf Dürrwald, John M Dye, Andrew J Easton, Hideki Ebihara, Szilvia L Farkas, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Pierre Formenty, Ron A M Fouchier, Yànpíng Fù, Elodie Ghedin, Michael M Goodin, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Horie, Timothy H Hyndman, Dàohóng Jiāng, Elliot W Kitajima, Gary P Kobinger, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Robert A Lamb, Sergio Lenardon, Eric M Leroy, Ci-Xiu Li, Xian-Dan Lin, Lìjiāng Liú, Ben Longdon, Szilvia Marton, Andrea Maisner, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V Netesov, Norbert Nowotny, Jean L Patterson, Susan L Payne, Janusz T Paweska, Rick E Randall, Bertus K Rima, Paul Rota, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Martin Schwemmle, Mang Shi, Sophie J Smither, Mark D Stenglein, David M Stone, Ayato Takada, Calogero Terregino, Robert B Tesh, Jun-Hua Tian, Keizo Tomonaga, Noël Tordo, Jonathan S Towner, Nikos Vasilakis, Martin Verbeek, Viktor E Volchkov, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, John A Walsh, Peter J Walker, David Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, Thierry Wetzel, Anna E Whitfield, Ji Tāo Xiè, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Jens H Kuhn

    Archives of virology   161 ( 8 )   2351 - 60   2016.8

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    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

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  • VIPP1 Has a Disordered C-Terminal Tail Necessary for Protecting Photosynthetic Membranes against Stress Reviewed

    Lingang Zhang, Hideki Kondo, Hironari Kamikubo, Mikio Kataoka, Wataru Sakamoto

    PLANT PHYSIOLOGY   171 ( 3 )   1983 - 1995   2016.7

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    Integrity of biomembranes is vital to living organisms. In bacteria, PspA is considered to act as repairing damaged membrane by forming large supercomplexes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Vulnerable to oxidative stress, photosynthetic organisms also contain a PspA ortholog called VIPP1, which has an additional C-terminal tail (Vc). In this study, Vc was shown to coincide with an intrinsically disordered region, and the role of VIPP1 in membrane protection against stress was investigated. We visualized VIPP1 by fusing it to GFP (VIPP1-GFP that fully complemented lethal vipp1 mutations), and investigated its behavior in vivo with live imaging. The intrinsically disordered nature of Vc enabled VIPP1 to form what appeared to be functional particles along envelopes, whereas the deletion of Vc caused excessive association of the VIPP1 particles, preventing their active movement for membrane protection. Expression of VIPP1 lacking Vc complemented vipp1 mutation, but exhibited sensitivity to heat shock stress. Conversely, transgenic plants over-expressing VIPP1 showed enhanced tolerance against heat shock, suggesting that Vc negatively regulates VIPP1 particle association and acts in maintaining membrane integrity. Our data thus indicate that VIPP1 is involved in the maintenance of photosynthetic membranes. During evolution, chloroplasts have acquired enhanced tolerance against membrane stress by incorporating a disordered C-terminal tail into VIPP1.

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  • A novel betapartitivirus RnPV6 from Rosellinia necatrix tolerates host RNA silencing but is interfered by its defective RNAs Reviewed

    Sotaro Chiba, Yu-Hsin Lin, Hideki Kondo, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    VIRUS RESEARCH   219   62 - 72   2016.7

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    The family Partitiviridae comprises of five genera with bi-segmented dsRNA genomes that accommodate members infecting plants, fungi or protists. All partitiviruses with only a few exceptions cause asymptomatic infections. We report the characterization of a novel betapartitivirus termed Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 6 (RnPV6) from a field isolate of a plant pathogenic fungus, white root rot fungus. RnPV6 has typical partitivirus features: dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 are 2462 and 2499 bps in length encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase and capsid protein. Purified particles are spherical with a diameter of 30 nm. Taking advantage of infectivity as virions, RnPV6 was introduced into a model filamentous fungal host, chestnut blight fungus to investigate virus/host interactions. Unlike other partitiviruses tested previously, RnPV6 induced profound phenotypic alterations with symptoms characterized by a reduced growth rate and enhanced pigmentation and was tolerant to host RNA silencing. In addition, a variety of defective RNAs derived from dsRNA1 appear after virion transfection. These sub-viral RNAs were shown to interfere with RnPV6 replication, at least for that of cognate segment dsRNA1. Presence of these sub-viral elements resulted in reduced symptom expression by RnPV6, suggesting their nature as defective-interfering RNAs. The features of RnPV6 are similar to but distinct from those of a previously reported alphapartitivirus, Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 2 that is susceptible to RNA silencing. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • Amyloplast Membrane Protein SUBSTANDARD STARCH GRAIN6 Controls Starch Grain Size in Rice Endosperm Reviewed

    Ryo Matsushima, Masahiko Maekawa, Miyako Kusano, Katsura Tomita, Hideki Kondo, Hideki Nishimura, Naoko Crofts, Naoko Fujita, Wataru Sakamoto

    PLANT PHYSIOLOGY   170 ( 3 )   1445 - 1459   2016.3

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    Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose. Starch is organized into starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. The SG size differs depending on the plant species and is one of the most important factors for industrial applications of starch. There is limited information on genetic factors regulating SG sizes. In this study, we report the rice (Oryza sativa) mutant substandard starch grain6 (ssg6), which develops enlarged SGs in endosperm. Enlarged SGs are observed starting at 3 d after flowering. During endosperm development, a number of smaller SGs appear and coexist with enlarged SGs in the same cells. The ssg6 mutation also affects SG morphologies in pollen. The SSG6 gene was identified by map-based cloning and microarray analysis. SSG6 encodes a protein homologous to aminotransferase. SSG6 differs from other rice homologs in that it has a transmembrane domain. SSG6-green fluorescent protein is localized in the amyloplast membrane surrounding SGs in rice endosperm, pollen, and pericarp. The results of this study suggest that SSG6 is a novel protein that controls SG size. SSG6 will be a useful molecular tool for future starch breeding and applications.

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  • A capsidless ssRNA virus hosted by an unrelated dsRNA virus Reviewed

    Rui Zhang, Sakae Hisano, Akio Tani, Hideki Kondo, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    NATURE MICROBIOLOGY   1 ( 1 )   15001   2016.1

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    Viruses typically encode the capsid that encases their genome, while satellite viruses do not encode a replicase and depend on a helper virus for their replication(1). Here, we report interplay between two RNA viruses, yado-nushi virus 1 (YnV1) and yado-kari virus 1 (YkV1), in a phytopathogenic fungus, Rosellinia necatrix(2). YkV1 has a close phylogenetic affinity to positive-sense, single-stranded (+)ssRNA viruses such as animal caliciviruses(3), while YnV1 has an undivided double-stranded (ds) RNA genome with a resemblance to fungal toti-viruses(4). Virion transfection and infectious full-length cDNA transformation has shown that YkV1 depends on YnV1 for viability, although it probably encodes functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Immunological and molecular analyses have revealed trans-encapsidation of not only YkV1 RNA but also RdRp by the capsid protein of the other virus (YnV1), and enhancement of YnV1 accumulation by YkV1. This study demonstrates interplay in which the capsidless (+) ssRNA virus (YkV1), hijacks the capsid protein of the dsRNA virus (YnV1), and replicates as if it were a dsRNA virus.

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  • IDENTIFICATION OF GENOME RECOMBINATION AMONG APPLE STEM PITTING VIRUS ISOLATES Reviewed

    Z. Li, H. Kondo, I. B. Andika, P. Liu, L. Sun, Y. Wu

    JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY   98 ( 3 )   595 - 601   2016

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    We have determined the complete genome sequence of an apple stem pitting virus isolate (ASPV, genus Foveavirus) from China, providing a new genome sequence of an ASPV isolate from apple trees. Nucleotide identities and phylogenetic relationships among this and another eleven complete sequences of ASPV isolates largely differed according to the coding regions of the genome analysed, suggesting the possible occurrence of recombination. Using recombination-detection programs, multiple recombination events throughout the ASPV genome were predicted to occur among isolates, regardless of their host species. Our analyses suggest that pervasive genome recombination drives the evolution and genetic diversity of ASPV.

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  • Interplays between Soil-Borne Plant Viruses and RNA Silencing-Mediated Antiviral Defense in Roots. International journal

    Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun

    Frontiers in microbiology   7   1458 - 1458   2016

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    Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions. RNA silencing is an important innate defense mechanism to combat virus infection in plants, but the specific information on the activities and molecular mechanism of RNA silencing-mediated viral defense in root tissue is still limited. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding RNA silencing aspects of the interactions between soil-borne viruses and host plants. Overall, research evidence suggests that soil-borne viruses have evolved to adapt to the distinct mechanism of antiviral RNA silencing in roots.

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  • Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus, a new sobemovirus isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) in Japan Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Shogo Takemoto, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Sotaro Chiba, Ida Bagus Andika, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY   160 ( 8 )   2099 - 2104   2015.8

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    Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virus (CyCMV), isolated from a spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii), was characterized molecularly. CyCMV isometric virions comprise a single, positive-strand RNA genome of 4,083 nucleotides and 30-kDa coat protein. The virus genome contains five overlapping open reading frames with a genomic organization similar to that of sobemoviruses. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CyCMV is most closely related to papaya lethal yellowing virus, a proposed dicot-infecting sobemovirus (58.8 % nucleotide sequence identity), but has a relatively distant relationship to monocot-infecting sobemoviruses, with only modest sequence identities. This suggests that CyCMV is a new monocot-infecting member of the floating genus Sobemovirus.

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  • Differential contributions of plant Dicer-like proteins to antiviral defences against potato virus X in leaves and roots Reviewed

    Ida Bagus Andika, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Liying Sun, Hideki Kondo, Tetsuo Tamada, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    PLANT JOURNAL   81 ( 5 )   781 - 793   2015.3

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    Members of the plant Dicer-like (DCL) protein family are the critical components of the RNA-silencing pathway that mediates innate antiviral defence. The distinct antiviral role of each individual DCL protein has been established with mostly based on observations of aerial parts of plants. Thus, although the roots are closely associated with the life cycle of many plant viruses, little is known about the antiviral activities of DCL proteins in roots. We observed that antiviral silencing strongly inhibits potato virus X (PVX) replication in roots of some susceptible Solanaceae species. Silencing of the DCL4 homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana partially elevated PVX replication levels in roots. In Arabidopsis thaliana, which was originally considered a non-host plant of PVX, high levels of PVX accumulation in inoculated leaves were achieved by inactivation of DCL4, while in the upper leaves and roots, it required the additional inactivation of DCL2. In transgenic A.thaliana carrying the PVX amplicon with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene insertion in the chromosome (AMP243 line), absence of DCL4 enabled high levels of PVX-GFP accumulation in various aerial organs but not in the roots, suggesting that DCL4 is critical for intracellular antiviral silencing in shoots but not in roots, where it can be functionally compensated by other DCL proteins. Together, the high level of functional redundancies among DCL proteins may contribute to the potent antiviral activities against PVX replication in roots.
    Significance StatementThis study demonstrates the differential contributions of DCL proteins between leaves and roots.

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  • Different Dicer-like protein components required for intracellular and systemic antiviral silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana. International journal

    Ida Bagus Andika, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Liying Sun, Hideki Kondo, Tetsuo Tamada, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Plant signaling & behavior   10 ( 8 )   e1039214   2015

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    Eukaryotes employ RNA silencing as an innate defense system against invading viruses. Dicer proteins play the most crucial role in initiating this antiviral pathway as they recognize and process incoming viral nucleic acids into small interfering RNAs. Generally, 2 successive infection stages constitute viral infection in plants. First, the virus multiplies in initially infected cells or organs after viral transmission and then the virus subsequently spreads systemically through the vasculature to distal plant tissues or organs. Thus, antiviral silencing in plants must cope with both local and systemic invasion of viruses. In a recent study using 2 sets of different experiments, we clearly demonstrated the differential requirement for Dicer-like 4 (DCL4) and DCL2 proteins in the inhibition of intracellular and systemic infection by potato virus X in Arabidopsis thaliana. Taken together with the results of other studies, here we further discuss the functional specificity of DCL proteins in the antiviral silencing pathway.

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  • A novel single-stranded RNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, with similarity to hypo-like viruses Reviewed

    Rui Zhang, Shengxue Liu, Sotaro Chiba, Hideki Kondo, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY   5   360   2014.7

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    Here we report a biological and molecular characterization of a novel positive-sense RNA virus isolated from a field isolate (NW10) of a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, the white root rot fungus that is designated as Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1). A recently developed technology using zinc ions allowed us to transfer RnFV1 to two mycelially incompatible Rosellinia necatrix strains. A biological comparison of the virus-free and -recipient isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnFV1 infects latently and thus has no potential as a virocontrol agent. The virus has an undivided positive-sense RNA genome of 6286 nucleotides excluding a poly (A) tail. The genome possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs): a large ORF1 that encodes polypeptides with RNA replication functions and a smaller ORF2 that encodes polypeptides of unknown function. A lack of coat protein genes was suggested by the failure of virus particles from infected mycelia. No evidence was obtained by Northern analysis or classical 5'-RACE for the presence of subgenomic RNA for the downstream ORE Sequence similarities were found in amino-acid sequence between RnFV1 putative proteins and counterparts of a previously reported mycovirus, Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1). Interestingly, several related sequences were detected by BLAST searches of independent transcriptome assembly databases one of which probably represents an entire virus genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that RnFV1, FgV1, and these similar sequences are grouped in a cluster distinct from distantly related hypoviruses. It is proposed that a new taxonomic family termed Fusariviridae be created to include RnFV1 and FgV1.

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  • Transcriptional mapping of the messenger and leader RNAs of orchid fleck virus, a bisegmented negative-strand RNA virus Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Sotaro Chiba, Ida Bagus Andika, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    VIROLOGY   452   166 - 174   2014.3

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    The transcriptional strategy of orchid fleck virus (OFV), which has a two-segmented negative-strand RNA genome and resembles plant nucleorhabdoviruses, remains unexplored. In this study, the transcripts of six genes encoded by OFV RNA1 and RNA2 in the poly(A)-enriched RNA fraction from infected plants were molecularly characterized. All of the OFV mRNAs were initiated at a start sequence 3'-UU-5' with one to three non-viral adenine nucleotides which were added at the 5' end of each mRNA, whereas their 3' termini ended with a 5'-AUUUAAA(U/G)AAAA(A)n-3' sequence. We also identified the presence of polyadenylated short transcripts derived from the 3'-terminal leader regions of both genomic and antigenomic strands, providing the first example of plus- and minus-strand leader RNAs in a segmented minus-strand RNA virus. The similarity in the transcriptional strategy between this bipartite OFV and monopartite rhabdoviruses, especially nucleorhabdoviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) is additional support for their close relationship. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Dichorhavirus: a proposed new genus for Brevipalpus mite-transmitted, nuclear, bacilliform, bipartite, negative-strand RNA plant viruses. International journal

    Ralf G Dietzgen, Jens H Kuhn, Anna N Clawson, Juliana Freitas-Astúa, Michael M Goodin, Elliott W Kitajima, Hideki Kondo, Thierry Wetzel, Anna E Whitfield

    Archives of virology   159 ( 3 )   607 - 19   2014.3

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    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) is an unassigned negative-sense, single-stranded (-)ssRNA plant virus that was previously suggested to be included in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Although OFV shares some biological characteristics, including nuclear cytopathological effects, gene order, and sequence similarities, with nucleorhabdoviruses, its taxonomic status is unclear because unlike all mononegaviruses, OFV has a segmented genome and its particles are not enveloped. This article analyses the available biological, physico-chemical, and nucleotide sequence evidence that seems to indicate that OFV and several other Brevipalpus mite-transmitted short bacilliform (-)ssRNA viruses are likely related and may be classified taxonomically in novel species in a new free-floating genus Dichorhavirus.

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  • Amyloplast-Localized SUBSTANDARD STARCH GRAIN4 Protein Influences the Size of Starch Grains in Rice Endosperm Reviewed

    Ryo Matsushima, Masahiko Maekawa, Miyako Kusano, Hideki Kondo, Naoko Fujita, Yasushi Kawagoe, Wataru Sakamoto

    PLANT PHYSIOLOGY   164 ( 2 )   623 - 636   2014.2

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    Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose and is synthesized to form starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. Cereal endosperm accumulates starch to levels that are more than 90% of the total weight, and most of the intracellular space is occupied by SGs. The size of SGs differs depending on the plant species and is one of the most important factors for industrial applications of starch. However, the molecular machinery that regulates the size of SGs is unknown. In this study, we report a novel rice (Oryza sativa) mutant called substandard starch grain4 (ssg4) that develops enlarged SGs in the endosperm. Enlargement of SGs in ssg4 was also observed in other starch-accumulating tissues such as pollen grains, root caps, and young pericarps. The SSG4 gene was identified by map-based cloning. SSG4 encodes a protein that contains 2,135 amino acid residues and an amino-terminal amyloplast-targeted sequence. SSG4 contains a domain of unknown function490 that is conserved from bacteria to higher plants. Domain of unknown function490-containing proteins with lengths greater than 2,000 amino acid residues are predominant in photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and higher plants but are minor in proteobacteria. The results of this study suggest that SSG4 is a novel protein that influences the size of SGs. SSG4 will be a useful molecular tool for future starch breeding and biotechnology.

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  • Complete genome sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus, a new potyvirus infecting a terrestrial orchid (Habenaria radiata) in Japan Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Takanori Maeda, I. Wayan Gara, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Tetsuo Tamada, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY   159 ( 1 )   163 - 166   2014.1

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    The complete genomic sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus (HaMV), which infects terrestrial orchids (Habenaria radiata), has been determined. The genome is composed of 9,499 nucleotides excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, encoding a large polyprotein of 3,054 amino acids with the genomic features typical of a potyvirus. Putative proteolytic cleavage sites were identified by sequence comparison to those of known potyviruses. The HaMV polyprotein showed 58 % amino acid sequence identity to that encoded by the most closely related potyvirus, tobacco vein banding mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein amino acid sequence and its coding sequences confirmed that HaMV formed a cluster with the chilli veinal mottle virus group, most of which infect solanaceous plants. These results suggest that HaMV is a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus.

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  • Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of VPg encoded by Wheat yellow mosaic virus requires association with the coat protein Reviewed

    Liying Sun, Bian Jing, Ida Bagus Andika, Yingchun Hu, Bingjian Sun, Rong Xiang, Hideki Kondo, Jianping Chen

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY   94 ( Pt 12 )   2790 - 2802   2013.12

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    VPg (virus protein, genome-linked) is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in viral multiplication in the cytoplasm. However, a number of VPgs encoded by plant viruses target the nucleus and this appears to be biologically significant. These VPgs may therefore be translocated between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments during virus infection, but such nucleo-cytoplasmic transport has not been demonstrated. We report that VPg encoded by Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, genus Bymovirus, family Potyviridae) accumulated in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells, but localized exclusively in the nucleus when expressed alone in plants. Computational analyses predicted the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) in WYMV VPg. Mutational analyses showed that both the N-terminal and the NLS domains of VPg contribute to the efficiency of nuclear targeting. In vitro and in planta assays indicated that VPg interacts with WYMV coat protein (CP) and proteinase 1 (P1) proteins. Observation of VPg fused to a fluorescent protein and subcellular fractionation experiments showed that VPg was translocated to the cytoplasm when co-expressed with CP, but not with P1. Mutations in the NES domain or treatment with leptomycin B prevented VPg translocation to the cytoplasm when co-expressed with CP. Our results suggest that association with CP facilitates the nuclear export of VPg during WYMV infection.

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  • Characterization of burdock mottle virus, a novel member of the genus Benyvirus, and the identification of benyvirus-related sequences in the plant and insect genomes Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Shuichi Hirano, Sotaro Chiba, Ida Bagus Andika, Makoto Hirai, Takanori Maeda, Tetsuo Tamada

    Virus Research   177 ( 1 )   75 - 86   2013.10

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    The complete nucleotide sequence of the burdock mottle virus (BdMoV) isolated from an edible burdock plant ( Arctium lappa) in Japan has been determined. BdMoV has a bipartite genome, whose organization is similar to RNA1 and RNA2 of benyviruses, beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), and rice stripe necrosis virus (RSNV). BdMoV RNA1 (7038 nt) contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 249-kDa polypeptide that consists of methyl-transferase, helicase, papain-like protease, AlkB-like, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. The AlkB-like domain sequence is not present in the proteins encoded by other known benyviruses, but is found in replication-associated proteins of viruses mainly belonging to the families Alfaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae. BdMoV RNA2 (4315 nt) contains six ORFs that are similar to those of benyviruses: these are coat protein (CP), CP readthrough, triple gene block movement and cysteine-rich proteins. Phylogenetic analyses showed that BdMoV is more closely related to BNYVV and BSBMV than to RSNV. Database searches showed that benyvirus replicase-related sequences are present in the chromosomes of a chickpea plant ( Cicer arietinum) and a blood-sucking insect ( Rhodnius prolixus). Some other benyvirus-related sequences are found in the transcriptome shotgun libraries of a few species of plants and a bark beetle. Our results show that BdMoV is a distinct species of the genus Benyvirus and that ancestral and extant benyviruses may have infected or currently infect a wide range of hosts, including plants and insects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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  • Nyamiviridae: proposal for a new family in the order Mononegavirales. International journal

    Jens H Kuhn, Sadia Bekal, Yíngyún Caì, Anna N Clawson, Leslie L Domier, Marieke Herrel, Peter B Jahrling, Hideki Kondo, Kris N Lambert, Kathie A Mihindukulasuriya, Norbert Nowotny, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Urs Schneider, Peter Staeheli, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Robert B Tesh, David Wang, Lin-Fa Wang, Ralf G Dietzgen

    Archives of virology   158 ( 10 )   2209 - 26   2013.10

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    Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV) are unclassified tick-borne agents that infect land birds and seabirds, respectively. The recent molecular characterization of both viruses confirmed their already known close serological relationship and revealed them to be nonsegmented, single- and negative-stranded RNA viruses that are clearly related to, but quite distinct from, members of the order Mononegavirales (bornaviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses). A third agent, soybean cyst nematode virus 1 (SbCNV-1, previously named soybean cyst nematode nyavirus), was recently found to be an additional member of this new virus group. Here, we review the current knowledge about all three viruses and propose classifying them as members of a new mononegaviral family, Nyamiviridae.

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  • Biological and genetic diversity of plasmodiophorid-transmitted viruses and their vectors Reviewed

    Tetsuo Tamada, Hideki Kondo

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PLANT PATHOLOGY   79 ( 5 )   307 - 320   2013.9

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    About 20 species of viruses belonging to five genera, Benyvirus, Furovirus, Pecluvirus, Pomovirus and Bymovirus, are known to be transmitted by plasmodiophorids. These viruses have all positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes that consist of two to five RNA components. Three species of plasmodiophorids are recognized as vectors: Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viruses can survive in soil within the long-lived resting spores of the vector. There are biological and genetic variations in both virus and vector species. Many of the viruses are causal agents of important diseases in major crops such as rice, wheat, barley, rye, sugar beet, potato, and groundnut. Control is dependent on the development of resistant cultivars. During the last half century, several virus diseases have rapidly spread worldwide. For six major virus diseases, we address their geographical distribution, diversity, and genetic resistance.

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  • Orchid fleck virus structural proteins N and P form intranuclear viroplasm like structures in the absence of viral infection Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Sotaro Chiba, Ida Bagus Andika, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Tetsuo Tamada, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Journal of Virology   87 ( 13 )   7423 - 7434   2013.7

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    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) has a unique two-segmented negative-sense RNA genome that resembles that of plant nucleorhabdoviruses. In infected plant cells, OFV and nucleorhabdoviruses induce an intranuclear electron-lucent viroplasm that is believed to be the site for virus replication. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which OFV viroplasms are produced in vivo. Among OFV-encoded proteins, the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the putative phosphoprotein (P) were present in nuclear fractions of OFV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Transient coexpression of N and P, in the absence of virus infection, was shown to be sufficient for formation of an intranuclear viroplasm-like structure in plant cells. When expressed independently as a fluorescent protein fusion product in uninfected plant cells, N protein accumulated throughout the cell, while P protein accumulated in the nucleus. However, the N protein, when coexpressed with P, was recruited to a subnuclear region to induce a large viroplasm-like focus. Deletion and substitution mutagenesis demonstrated that the P protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Artificial nuclear targeting of the N-protein mutant was insufficient for formation of viroplasm-like structures in the absence of P. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed interactions between the N and P proteins within subnuclear viroplasm-like foci and interactions of two of the N. benthamiana importin-α homologues with the P protein but not with the N protein. Taken together, our results suggest that viroplasm formation by OFV requires nuclear accumulation of both the N and P proteins, which is mediated by P-NLS, unlike nucleorhabdovirus viroplasm utilizing the NLS on protein N. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

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  • A novel virus in the family Hypoviridae from the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum Reviewed

    Shuangchao Wang, Hideki Kondo, Liang Liu, Lihua Guo, Dewen Qiu

    VIRUS RESEARCH   174 ( 1-2 )   69 - 77   2013.6

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    A double-stranded (ds) RNA element, sized at approximately 13 kb pairs, was purified from a field isolate, HN10, of Fusariumgraminearum.The coding strand of the dsRNA was 13,023 nucleotides (nt) long (excluding the 3' poly(A) tail) and was predicted to contain two discontiguous open reading frames (ORF A and ORF B). The 5' proximal ORF A of 531 nt encoded a protein of 176 amino acids (aa), and a BLAST search showed it to be similar to the putative papain-like protease domains encoded by Valsa ceratosperma hypovirus 1 (35% identity) and Cryphonectria hypovirus 4 (CHV4) (31% identity). The 3' proximal ORF B of 11,118 nt encoded a large polyprotein with three conserved domains, including papain-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA helicase domains. The polyprotein shared significant aa identities with CHV1 (32%) and CHV2 (32%). Both the genome organization and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the characterized RNA represented a novel hypovirus, designated "Fusarium graminearum hypovirus 1 (FgHV1)", which was closely related to CHV1 and CHV2 in the Hypoviridae family. Elimination of the virus resulted in no dramatic phenotypic alteration of the fungus. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • A Novel Victorivirus from a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, Is Infectious as Particles and Targeted by RNA Silencing Reviewed

    Sotaro Chiba, Yu-Hsin Lin, Hideki Kondo, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY   87 ( 12 )   6727 - 6738   2013.6

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    A novel victorivirus, termed Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (RnVV1), was isolated from a plant pathogenic ascomycete, white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix, coinfected with a partitivirus. The virus was molecularly and biologically characterized using the natural and experimental hosts (chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica). RnVV1 was shown to have typical molecular victorivirus attributes, including a monopartite double-stranded RNA genome with two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a UAAUG pentamer presumed to facilitate the coupled termination/reinitiation for translation of the two ORFs, a spherical particle structure similar to 40 nm in diameter, and moderate levels of CP and RdRp sequence identity (34 to 58%) to those of members of the genus Victorivirus within the family Totiviridae. A reproducible transfection system with purified RnVV1 virions was developed for the two distinct fungal hosts. Transfection assay with purified RnVV1 virions combined with virus elimination by hyphal tipping showed that the effects of RnVV1 on the phenotype of the natural host were negligible. Interestingly, comparison of the RNA silencing-competent (standard strain EP155) and -defective (Delta dcl-2) strains of C. parasitica infected with RnVV1 showed that RNA silencing acted against the virus to repress its replication, which was restored by coinfection with hypovirus or transgenic expression of an RNA silencing suppressor, hypovirus p29. Phenotypic changes were observed in the Delta dcl-2 strain but not in EP155. This is the first reported study on the host range expansion of a Totiviridae member that is targeted by RNA silencing.

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  • Identification of a movement protein of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein ophiovirus Reviewed

    Akihiro Hiraguri, Shoko Ueki, Hideki Kondo, Koji Nomiyama, Takumi Shimizu, Tamaki Ichiki-Uehara, Toshihiro Omura, Nobumitsu Sasaki, Hiroshi Nyunoya, Takahide Sasaya

    Journal of General Virology   94 ( 5 )   1145 - 1150   2013.5

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    Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV) is a member of the genus Ophiovirus, which is a segmented negative-stranded RNA virus. In microprojectile bombardment experiments to identify a movement protein (MP) gene of ophioviruses that can trans-complement intercellular movement of an MP-deficient heterologous virus, a plasmid containing an infectious clone of a tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) derivative expressing the GFP was co-bombarded with plasmids containing one of three genes from MiLBVV RNAs 1, 2 and 4 onto Nicotiana benthamiana. Intercellular movement of the movement-defective ToMV was restored by co-expression of the 55 kDa protein gene, but not with the two other genes. Transient expression in epidermal cells of N. benthamiana and onion showed that the 55 kDa protein with GFP was localized on the plasmodesmata. The 55 kDa protein encoded in the MiLBVV RNA2 can function as an MP of the virus. This report is the first to describe an ophiovirus MP. © 2013 SGM.

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  • Identification of the amino acid residues and domains in the cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus that are important for RNA silencing suppression and subcellular localization Reviewed

    Liying Sun, Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Jianping Chen

    Molecular Plant Pathology   14 ( 3 )   265 - 278   2013.4

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    Cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) encoded by some plant viruses in diverse genera function as RNA silencing suppressors. Within the N-terminal portion of CRPs encoded by furoviruses, there are six conserved cysteine residues and a Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif (Cys, cysteine
    Gly, glycine
    His, histidine
    X, any amino acid residue) with unknown function. The central domains contain coiled-coil heptad amino acid repeats that usually mediate protein dimerization. Here, we present evidence that the conserved cysteine residues and Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif in the CRP of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) are critical for protein stability and silencing suppression activity. Mutation of a leucine residue in the third coiled-coil heptad impaired CWMV CRP activity for suppression of local silencing, but not for the promotion of cell-to-cell movement of Potato virus X (PVX). Inplanta and invitro analysis of wild-type and mutant proteins indicated that the ability of the CRP to self-interact was correlated with its suppression activity. Deletion of up to 40 amino acids at the C-terminus did not abolish suppression activity, but disrupted the association of CRP with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and reduced its activity in the enhancement of PVX symptom severity. Interestingly, a short region in the C-terminal domain, predicted to form an amphipathic α-helical structure, was responsible for the association of CWMV CRP with ER. Overall, our results demonstrate that the N-terminal and central regions are the functional domains for suppression activity, whereas the C-terminal region primarily functions to target CWMV CRP to the ER. © 2012 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2012 Bspp and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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  • Effects of Defective Interfering RNA on Symptom Induction by, and Replication of, a Novel Partitivirus from a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Rosellinia necatrix Reviewed

    Sotaro Chiba, Yu-Hsin Lin, Hideki Kondo, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY   87 ( 4 )   2330 - 2341   2013.2

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    A novel mycovirus termed Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 2 (RnPV2), isolated from a phytopathogenic fungus, Rosellinina necatrix strain W57, was molecularly and biologically characterized in both natural and experimental host fungi. Three double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments, dsRNA1, dsRNA2, and defective interfering dsRNA1 (DI-dsRNA1), whose sizes were approximately 2.0, 1.8, and 1.7 kbp, respectively, were detected in W57. While the dsRNA2 sequence, encoding the coat protein, was reported previously, dsRNA1 and DI-dsRNA1 were shown to encode competent and defective (truncated) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Artificial introduction of RnPV2 into an RNA silencing-defective, Dicer-like 2 knockout mutant (Delta dcl-2) of a nonnatural host, Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight fungus), resulted in successful infection by the DI-dsRNA1-carrying and -free RnPV2. The DI-dsRNA1-free RnPV2 strain was characterized by a higher ratio of accumulation of the intact dsRNA1 to dsRNA2, enhanced replication and severer symptom expression, compared with the DI-carrying strain. These findings confirmed the nature of DI-dsRNA1 as a DI-RNA. Both viral strains replicated to higher levels in a Delta dcl-2 mutant than in a wild-type C. parasitica fungal strain (EP155) and induced severe symptoms in the Delta dcl-2 mutant but subtle symptoms in EP155, indicating that the host RNA silencing targets the partitivirus. No obvious phenotypic effects of infection by either virus strain were detected in the natural host fungus. These combined results represent the first example of a partitivirus with DI-RNA that alters viral symptom induction in a host-dependent manner.

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  • Evidence for negative-strand RNA virus infection in fungi Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    Virology   435 ( 2 )   201 - 209   2013.1

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    Fungal viruses comprise two groups: a major group of five families with double-stranded RNA genomes and a minor group with positive-sense single-stranded (ss)RNA genomes. Although many fungal viruses have been identified, no negative-stranded (-)ssRNA mycoviruses have been reported. Here we present two lines of evidence suggesting the presence of (-)ssRNA viruses in filamentous fungi based on an exhaustive search using extant (-)ssRNA viruses as queries. This revealed (-)ssRNA virus L protein-like sequences in the genome of a phytopathogenic obligate ascomycete, Erysiphe pisi. A similar search for (-)ssRNA viruses in fungal transcriptome shotgun assembly libraries demonstrated that two independent libraries from Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, another phytopathogenic ascomycete, contained several sequences considered to correspond to the entire mononegavirus L gene and likely originating from an infecting (-)ssRNA virus. These results provide strong evidence for both ancient and extant (-)ssRNA virus infections in fungi. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

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  • Endoplasmic reticulum export and vesicle formation of the movement protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus are regulated by two transmembrane domains and depend on the secretory pathway Reviewed

    Ida Bagus Andika, Shiling Zheng, Zilong Tan, Liying Sun, Hideki Kondo, Xueping Zhou, Jianping Chen

    VIROLOGY   435 ( 2 )   493 - 503   2013.1

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    The 37K protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) belongs to the 30K superfamily of plant virus movement proteins. CWMV 37K trans-complemented the cell-to-cell spread of a movement-defective Potato virus X. CWMV 37K fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein localized to plasmodesmata and formed endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicular and large aggregate structures. CWMV 37K has two putative N-terminal transmembrane domains (TMDs). Mutations disrupting TMD1 or TMD2 impaired 37K movement function; those mutants were unable to form ER-derived structures but instead accumulated in the ER. Treatment with Brefeldin A or overexpression of the dominant negative mutant of Sari retained 37K in the ER, indicating that ER export of 37K is dependent on the secretory pathway. Moreover, CWMV 37K interacted with pectin methylesterases and mutations in TMD1 or TMD2 impaired this interaction in planta. The results suggest that the two TMDs regulate the movement function and intracellular transport of 37K. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • [Plant rhabdoviruses with bipartite genomes].

    Hideki Kondo

    Uirusu   63 ( 2 )   143 - 54   2013

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    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae (order Mononegavirales) have a broad range of hosts, including humans, livestock, fish, plants, and invertebrates. They have a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA as the genome. Orchid fleck virus (OFV) is distributed world-wide on several orchid plants and transmitted by the false spider mite, Brevipalpus californicus. Based on its virions morphology and cytopathic effects in the infected cells, OFV was tentatively placed as unassigned plant rhabdoviruses in the sixth ICTV Report. However, the molecular studies reveled that OFV has a unique two-segmented negative-sense RNA genome that resembles monopartite genomes of plant nucleorhabdoviruses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the genome structure and gene expression strategy of OFV, the possible mechanism of nuclear viroplasm formation, and the taxonomical consideration of the virus as well.

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  • Viruses of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix. Reviewed

    Kondo H, Kanematsu S, Suzuki N

    Advances in virus research   86   177 - 214   2013

  • The cysteine-rich proteins of beet necrotic yellow vein virus and tobacco rattle virus contribute to efficient suppression of silencing in roots Reviewed

    Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Masamichi Nishiguchi, Tetsuo Tamada

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY   93 ( Pt 8 )   1841 - 1850   2012.8

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    Many plant viruses encode proteins that suppress RNA silencing, but little is known about the activity of silencing suppressors in roots. This study examined differences in the silencing suppression activity of different viruses in leaves and roots of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Infection by tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus Y and cucumber mosaic virus but not potato virus X (PVX) resulted in strong silencing suppression activity of a transgene in both leaves and roots, whereas infection by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and tobacco rattle virus (TRV) showed transgene silencing suppression in roots but not in leaves. For most viruses tested, viral negative-strand RNA accumulated at a very low level in roots, compared with considerable levels of positive-strand genomic RNA. Co-inoculation of leaves with PVX and either BNYVV or TRV produced an increase in PVX negative-strand RNA and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) accumulation in roots. The cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) BNYVV p14 and TRV 16K showed weak silencing suppression activity in leaves. However, when either of these CRPs was expressed from a PVX vector, there was an enhancement of PVX negative-strand RNA and sgRNA accumulation in roots compared with PVX alone. Such enhancement of PVX sgRNAs was also observed by expression of CRPs of other viruses and the well-known suppressors HC-Pro and p19 but not of the potato mop-top virus p8 CRP. These results indicate that BNYVV- and TRV-encoded CRPs suppress RNA silencing more efficiently in roots than in leaves.

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  • A novel quadripartite dsRNA virus isolated from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus, Rosellinia necatrix Reviewed

    Yu-Hsin Lin, Sotaro Chiba, Akio Tani, Hideki Kondo, Atsuko Sasaki, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    VIROLOGY   426 ( 1 )   42 - 50   2012.4

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    Here we report the biological and molecular attributes of a novel dsRNA virus isolated from Rosellinia necatrix, a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus. The virus, termed Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), forms rigid spherical particles approximately 45 nm in diameter in infected mycelia. The particles contain 4 dsRNA segments, dsRNA1 to dsRNA4, with a size range of 4.9 to 3.7 kbp, each possessing a single large ORF. A comparison of the virus-infected and -cured isogenic fungal strains suggested that RnQV1 infection has no appreciable phenotypic effects. Phylogenetic analysis using the dsRNA3-encoded RdRp sequence revealed that RnQV1 is more distantly related to quadripartite chrysoviruses than to monopartite totiviruses, and is placed in a distinct group from other mycoviruses. No significant sequence similarities were evident between known proteins and RnQV1 structural proteins shown to be encoded by dsRNA2 or dsRNA4. These suggest that RnQV1 is a novel latent virus, belonging to a new family. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • The enigmatic genome of Chara australis virus Reviewed

    Adrian J. Gibbs, Marjo Torronen, Anne M. Mackenzie, Jeffery T. Wood, John S. Armstrong, Hideki Kondo, Tetsuo Tamada, Paul L. Keese

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY   92 ( Pt 11 )   2679 - 2690   2011.11

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    Most of the genomic sequence of Chara australis virus (CAV), previously called Chara corallina virus, has been determined. It is a ssRNA molecule of 9065 nt with at least four ORFs. At its 5' end is an ORF encoding a protein of 227 kDa, distantly homologous to the multifunctional replicases of benyviruses and rubiviruses. Next is an ORF encoding a protein of 44 kDa, homologous to the helicases of pestiviruses. The third ORF encodes an unmatched protein of 38 kDa that is probably a movement protein. The fourth and 3'-terminal ORF encodes a protein of 17.7 kDa homologous to the coat proteins of tobamoviruses. The short methyltransferase region of the CAV replicase matches only the C-terminal motif of benyvirus methyltransferases. This and other clues indicate that approximately 11 % and 2 % of the 5' and 3' termini of the complete CAV genome, respectively, are missing from the sequence. The aligned amino acid sequences of the CAV proteins and their nearest homologues contain many gaps but relationships inferred from them were little affected by removal of these gaps. Sequence comparisons show that three of the CAV genes may have diverged from the most closely related genes of other viruses 250-450 million years ago, and the sister relationship between the genes of CAV and those of benyviruses and tobamoviruses, mirroring the ancient sister relationship between charophytes (i.e. the algal host of CAV) and embryophytes (i.e. the plant hosts of tobamoviruses and benyviruses), is congruent with this possibility.

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  • Widespread Endogenization of Genome Sequences of Non-Retroviral RNA Viruses into Plant Genomes Reviewed

    Sotaro Chiba, Hideki Kondo, Akio Tani, Daisuke Saisho, Wataru Sakamoto, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

    PLOS PATHOGENS   7 ( 7 )   2011.7

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    Non-retroviral RNA virus sequences (NRVSs) have been found in the chromosomes of vertebrates and fungi, but not plants. Here we report similarly endogenized NRVSs derived from plus-, negative-, and double-stranded RNA viruses in plant chromosomes. These sequences were found by searching public genomic sequence databases, and, importantly, most NRVSs were subsequently detected by direct molecular analyses of plant DNAs. The most widespread NRVSs were related to the coat protein (CP) genes of the family Partitiviridae which have bisegmented dsRNA genomes, and included plant-and fungus-infecting members. The CP of a novel fungal virus (Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 2, RnPV2) had the greatest sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana ILR2, which is thought to regulate the activities of the phytohormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Furthermore, partitivirus CP-like sequences much more closely related to plant partitiviruses than to RnPV2 were identified in a wide range of plant species. In addition, the nucleocapsid protein genes of cytorhabdoviruses and varicosaviruses were found in species of over 9 plant families, including Brassicaceae and Solanaceae. A replicase-like sequence of a betaflexivirus was identified in the cucumber genome. The pattern of occurrence of NRVSs and the phylogenetic analyses of NRVSs and related viruses indicate that multiple independent integrations into many plant lineages may have occurred. For example, one of the NRVSs was retained in Ar. thaliana but not in Ar. lyrata or other related Camelina species, whereas another NRVS displayed the reverse pattern. Our study has shown that single-and double-stranded RNA viral sequences are widespread in plant genomes, and shows the potential of genome integrated NRVSs to contribute to resolve unclear phylogenetic relationships of plant species.

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  • The Evolutionary History of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus Deduced from Genetic Variation, Geographical Origin and Spread, and the Breaking of Host Resistance Reviewed

    Soutaro Chiba, Hideki Kondo, Masaki Miyanishi, Ida Bagus Andika, Chenggui Han, Tetsuo Tamada

    MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS   24 ( 2 )   207 - 218   2011.2

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    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is an economically important pathogen of sugar beet and has been found worldwide, probably as the result of recent worldwide spread. The BNYVV genome consists of four or five RNA components. Here, we report analysis of sequence variation in the RNA3-p25, RNA4-p31, RNA2-CP, and RNA5-p26 genes of 73 worldwide isolates. The RNA3-p25 gene encodes virulence and avirulence factors. These four sets of gene sequences each fell into two to four groups, of which the three groups of p25 formed eight subgroups with different geographical distributions. Each of these subgroup isolates (strains) could have arisen from four original BNYVV population and their mixed infections. The genetic diversity for BNYVV was relatively small. Selection pressure varied greatly depending on the BNYVV gene and geographical location. Isolates of the Italy strain, in which p25 was subject to the strongest positive selection, were able to overcome the Rz1-host resistance gene to differing degrees, whereas other geographically limited strains could not. Resistance-breaking variants were generated by p25 amino acid changes at positions 67 and 68. Our studies suggest that BNYVV originally evolved in East Asia and has recently become a pathogen of cultivated sugar beet followed by the emergence of new resistance-breaking variants.

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  • Identification and characterization of structural proteins of orchid fleck virus Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Takanori Maeda, Tetsuo Tamada

    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY   154 ( 1 )   37 - 45   2009.1

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    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) has a bipartite negative-sense RNA genome with sequence similarities to plant rhabdoviruses. The non-enveloped bullet-shaped particles of OFV are similar to those of the internal ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-M protein structure of rhabdoviruses, but they are about half the size of typical plant rhabdoviruses. Purified preparations contained intact bullet-shaped and filamentous particles. The filamentous particles showed a tightly coiled coil structure or a coiled structure with a helical twist, which resembles the RNP complex of rhabdoviruses. OFV bullet-shaped particles were structurally stable in solutions containing 2% Triton X-100 and 0.8 M NaCl. Western blot analyses revealed that the bullet-shaped particles contained N, P and M proteins, while filamentous particles contained mainly N and P proteins. In addition, a small amount of the L protein was detected in both types of particles. Thus, the structural proteins of OFV have properties similar to those of rhabdoviruses, except that the particles are non-enveloped and are relatively resistant to detergent-treatment under high-salt conditions.

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  • Role of N-terminal His-rich domain of Oscillatoria brevis Bxa1 in both Ag(I)/Cu(I) and Cd(II)/Zn(II) tolerance. Reviewed

    Nakakihara E, Kondo H, Nakashima S, Ezaki B

    The open microbiology journal   3   15 - 22   2009

  • The crucial role of mitochondrial regulation in adaptive aluminium resistance in Rhodotorula glutinis Reviewed

    Akio Tani, Chiemi Inoue, Yoko Tanaka, Yoko Yamamoto, Hideki Kondo, Syuntaro Hiradate, Kazuhide Kimbara, Fusako Kawai

    MICROBIOLOGY-SGM   154 ( Pt 11 )   3437 - 3446   2008.11

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    Rhodotorula glutinis IFO1125 was found to acquire increased aluminium (Al) resistance from 50 mu M to more than 5 mM by repetitive culturing with stepwise increases in Al concentration at pH 4.0. To investigate the mechanism underlying this novel phenomenon, wild-type and Al- resistant cells were compared. Neither cell type accumulated the free form of Al (Al3+) added to the medium. Transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed a greater number of mitochondria in resistant cells. The formation of small mitochondria with simplified cristae structures was observed in the wild-type strain grown in the presence of Al and in resistant cells grown in the absence of Al. Addition of Al to cells resulted in high mitochondrial membrane potential and concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure to Al also resulted in elevated levels of oxidized proteins and oxidized lipids. Addition of the antioxidants a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid alleviated the Al toxicity, suggesting that ROS generation is the main cause of Al toxicity. Differential display analysis indicated upregulation of mitochondrial genes in the resistant cells. Resistant cells were found to have 2.5- to 3-fold more mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than the wild-type strain. Analysis of tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory-chain enzyme activities in wild-type and resistant cells revealed significantly reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity and resultant high ROS production in the latter cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the adaptive increased resistance to Al stress in resistant cells resulted from an increased number of mitochondria and increased mtDNA content, as a compensatory response to reduced respiratory activity caused by a deficiency in complex IV function.

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  • Mitochondrial alterations related to programmed cell death in tobacco cells under aluminium stress Reviewed

    Sanjib Kumar Panda, Yoko Yamamoto, Hideki Kondo, Hideaki Matsumoto

    COMPTES RENDUS BIOLOGIES   331 ( 8 )   597 - 610   2008.8

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    The present investigation was undertaken to verify whether mitochondria play a significant role in aluminium(Al) toxicity, using the mitochondria isolated from tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, non-chlorophyllic cell line SL) under Al stress. An inhibition of respiration was observed in terms of state-III, state-IV, succinate-dependent, alternative oxidase (AOX)-pathway capacity and cytochrome (CYT)-pathway capacity, respectively, in the mitochondria isolated from tobacco cells subjected to Al stress for 18 h. In accordance with the respiratory inhibition, the mitochondrial ATP content showed a significant decrease under Al treatment. An enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under state-III respiration was observed in the mitochondria isolated from Al-treated cells, which would create an oxidative stress situation. The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) was seen more extensively in mitochondria isolated from Al-treated cells than in those isolated from control cells. This was Ca2+ dependent and well modulated by dithioerythritol (DTE) and Pi, but insensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA). The collapse of inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) was also observed with a release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. A great decrease in the ATP content was also seen under Al stress. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of Al-treated cells also corroborated our biochemical data with distortion in membrane architecture in mitochondria. TUNEL-positive nuclei in Al-treated cells strongly indicated the occurrence of nuclear fragmentation. From the above study, it was concluded that Al toxicity affects severely the mitochondrial respiratory functions and alters the redox status studied in vitro and also the internal structure, which seems to cause finally cell death in tobacco cells.

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  • Identification of amino acids of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus p25 protein required for induction of the resistance response in leaves of Beta vulgaris plants Reviewed

    Soutaro Chiba, Masaki Miyanishi, Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Tetsuo Tamada

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY   89 ( Pt 5 )   1314 - 1323   2008.5

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    The RNA3-encoded p25 protein of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is responsible for the production of rhizomania symptoms of sugar beet roots (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Here, it was found that the presence of the p25 protein is also associated with the resistance response in rub-inoculated leaves of sugar beet and wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) plants. The resistance phenotype displayed a range of symptoms from no visible lesions to necrotic or greyish lesions at the inoculation site, and only very low levels of virus and viral RNA accumulated. The susceptible phenotype showed large, bright yellow lesions and developed high levels of virus accumulation. In roots after Polymyxa betae vector inoculation, however, no drastic differences in virus and viral RNA accumulation levels were found between plants with susceptible and resistant phenotypes, except at an early stage of infection. There was a genotype-specific interaction between BNYVV strains and two selected wild beet lines (MR1 and MR2) and sugar beet cultivars. Sequence analysis of natural BNYVV isolates and site-directed mutagenesis of the p25 protein revealed that 3 aa residues at positions 68, 70 and 179 are important in determining the resistance phenotype, and that host-genotype specificity is controlled by single amino acid changes at position 68. The mechanism of the occurrence of resistance-breaking BNYVV strains is discussed.

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  • RNA4-encoded p31 of beet necrotic yellow vein virus is involved in efficient vector transmission, symptom severity and silencing suppression in roots Reviewed

    Muhammad Danial Rahim, Ida Bagus Andika, Chenggui Han, Hideki Kondo, Tetsuo Tamada

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY   88 ( Pt 5 )   1611 - 1619   2007.5

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    RNA3 and RNA4 of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) are not essential for virus multiplication, but are associated with vector-mediated infection and disease development in sugar beet roots. Here, a unique role for RNA4 in virus transmission, virulence and RNA silencing suppression was demonstrated. Mutagenic analysis revealed that the RNA4-encoded p31 open reading frame (ORF) was involved in efficient vector transmission and slight enhancement of symptom expression in some Beta species. No effects of RNA4 on virus accumulation in infected tissue were observed. Furthermore, the p31 ORF was involved in the induction of severe symptoms by BNYVV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants without affecting viral RNA accumulation. In contrast, RNA3-encoded p25, previously identified as a major contributor to symptom induction in sugar beet, had no such effect on N. benthamiana. In two different silencing suppression assays, neither p31 nor p25 was able to suppress RNA silencing in leaves, but the presence of p31 enhanced a silencing suppressor activity in roots without alteration in viral RNA accumulation. Thus, BNYVV p31 plays a multifunctional role in efficient vector transmission, enhanced symptom expression and root-specific silencing suppression.

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  • Orchid fleck virus is a rhabdovirus with an unusual bipartite genome Reviewed

    Hideki Kondo, Takanori Maeda, Yukio Shirako, Tetsuo Tamada

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY   87 ( Pt 8 )   2413 - 2421   2006.8

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    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) has an unusual bipartite negative-sense RNA genome with clear sequence similarities to those of nucleorhabdoviruses. The OFV genome consists of two single-stranded RNA molecules, RNA1 and RNA2 that are 6413 and 6001 nt long, respectively, with open reading frame (ORF) information in the complementary sense. RNA1 encodes 49 (ORF1), 26 (ORF2), 38 (ORF3), 20 (ORF4) and 61 kDa (ORF5) proteins, and RNA2 encodes a single protein of 212 kDa (ORF6). ORF1, ORF5 and ORF6 proteins had significant similarities (21-38 % identity) to the nucleocapsid protein (N), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L) gene products, respectively, of other rhabdoviruses, especially nucleorhabdoviruses, whereas ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4 proteins had no significant similarities to other proteins in the international databases. Similarities between OFV and rhabdoviruses were also found in the sequence complementarity at both termini of each RNA segment (the common terminal sequences are 3'-UGUGUC---GACACA-5'), the conserved intergenic sequences and in being negative sense. It was proposed that a new genus Dichorhabdovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae of the order Mononegavirales should be established with OFV as its prototype member and type species.

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  • Lower levels of transgene silencing in roots is associated with reduced DNA methylation levels at non-symmetrical sites but not at symmetrical sites Reviewed

    IB Andika, H Kondo, MD Rahim, T Tamada

    PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY   60 ( 3 )   423 - 435   2006.2

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    Transgene transcripts were recently shown to accumulate at higher levels in roots, relative to leaves, of silenced-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants and to be inversely related with the accumulation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), suggesting that RNA silencing is less active in roots than in leaves (Andika et al., 2005. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 18: 194). Here we show that the lower transgene RNA silencing activity in roots was associated with lower transgene methylation levels at non-symmetrical CpNpN context but not at symmetrical CpG or CpNpG context in three sets of transformant plants with different exogenous genes. In contrast, such a difference between roots and leaves was not observed for the Tnt1 retrotransposon: no Tnt1 transcript was detected in roots or in leaves of N. benthamiana, while equal levels of Tnt1-derived siRNA accumulation and Tnt1 methylation were found. From our data and previously reported information, we suggest that roots have less of an activity that acts at the step of generation of siRNAs.

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  • Evidence that RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus is less effective in roots than in leaves Reviewed

    IB Andika, H Kondo, T Tamada

    MOLECULAR PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS   18 ( 3 )   194 - 204   2005.3

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    In plants, RNA silencing is part of a defense mechanism against virus infection but there is little information as to whether RNA silencing-mediated resistance functions similarly in roots and leaves. We have obtained transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants encoding the coat protein readthrough domain open reading frame (54 kDa) of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which either showed a highly resistant or a recovery phenotype following foliar rub-inoculation with BNYVV. These phenotypes were associated with an RNA silencing mechanism. Roots of the resistant plants that were immune to foliar rub-inoculation with BNYVV could be infected by viruliferous zoo-spores of the vector fungus Polymyxa betae, although virus multiplication was greatly limited. In addition, virus titer was reduced in symptomless leaves of the plants showing the recovery phenotype, but it was high in roots of the same plants. Compared with leaves of silenced plants, higher levels of transgene mRNAs and lower levels of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) accumulated in roots. Similarly, in nontransgenic plants inoculated with BNYVV, accumulation level of viral RNA-derived siRNAs in roots was lower than in leaves. These results indicate that the RNA silencing-mediated resistance to BNYVV is less effective in roots than in leaves.

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  • A reovirus of the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica that is infectious as particles and related to the Coltivirus genus of animal pathogens Reviewed

    BI Hillman, S Supyani, H Kondo, N Suzuki

    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY   78 ( 2 )   892 - 898   2004.1

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    RNA viruses of filamentous fungi fall into two broad categories, those that contain double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes in rigid particles and those that are more closely related to positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with dsRNA replicative intermediates found within lipid vesicles. Effective infectivity systems have been described for the latter, using RNA transcripts, but not for the former. We report the characterization of a reovirus from Cryphonectria parasitica, the filamentous fungus that causes chestnut blight disease. The virus substantially reduces the virulence of the fungus and results in dramatically altered colony morphology, as well as changes in other associated fungal traits, relative to the virus-free isogenic strain. Virus particles from infected mycelium contained 11 segments of dsRNA and showed characteristics typical of the family Reoviridae. Sequences of the largest three segments revealed that the virus is closely related to the Coltivirus genus of animal pathogens, which includes the human pathogen Colorado tick fever virus. The introduction of purified virus particles into protoplasts from virus-free isolates of the fungus resulted in a newly infected mycelium with the same morphology and virus composition as the original virus-infected isolate. This represents the completion of Koch's postulates for a true dsRNA virus from a filamentous fungus and the description of a definitive fungal member of the family Reoviridae.

    DOI: 10.1128/JVI.78.2.892-898.2004

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  • Orchid fleck virus: Brevipalpus californicus mite transmission, biological properties and genome structure Reviewed International journal

    H Kondo, T Maeda, T Tamada

    EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED ACAROLOGY   30 ( 1-3 )   215 - 223   2003

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    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) causes necrotic or chlorotic ring spots and fleck symptoms in many orchid species world-wide. The virus has non-enveloped, bacilliform particles of about 40 nm x 100-150 nm and is sap-transmissible to several plant species. OFV is transmitted by the mite Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) in a persistent manner and efficiently transmitted by both adults and nymphs, but not by larvae. Viruliferous mites retain their infectivity for 3 weeks on a virus-immune host. The genome of OFV consists of two molecules of 6431 (RNA1) and 6001 nucleotides (RNA2). The RNAs have conserved and complementary terminal sequences. RNA1 contains five open reading frames (ORF), and RNA2 encodes a single ORF. Although some of the encoded proteins of OFV have sequences similar to those of proteins of plant rhabdoviruses, OFV differs from viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae in having a bipartite genome.

    DOI: 10.1023/B:APPA.0000006550.88615.10

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  • Identification of Orchid fleck virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and analysis of isolate relationships

    AL Blanchfield, AM Mackenzie, A Gibbs, H Kondo, T Tamada, CR Wilson

    JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY-PHYTOPATHOLOGISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT   149 ( 11-12 )   713 - 718   2001.12

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    Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests with a primer complementary to a region of its nucleoprotein gene together with a polydT/ SP6 primer, Orchid fleck virus (OFV) was detected in 34 samples of infected orchids of several different genera from world-wide sources. The resulting DNA fragments were approximately 800 bp in length and their sequences were determined directly. Analysis of sequences of the major open reading frame (ORF) within the DNA fragments obtained showed the presence of two virus strains. The first group was of two isolates, the original Japanese isolate from which the primers were derived and one from Germany, and the second group contained 33 isolates from four continents. The sequences of different groups differed from one another by at least 15.6% (nucleotide) and 1.8% (amino-acid), but the within-group differences were much less (< 1.7% difference). A search of the international nucleotide database with the OFV sequences showed them to be related, but distantly, to nucleoprotein regions of the genomes of four plant-infecting rhabdoviruses.

    DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0434.2001.00702.x

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  • Comparative Cytopathology and Immunocytochemistry of Japanese, Australian and Brazilian Isolates of Orchid fleck virus :

    KITAJIMA Elliot W., KONDO Hideki, MACKENZIE Anne, REZENDE Jorge Alberto M., GIORIA Ricardo, GIBBS Adrian, TAMADA Tetsuo

    Journal of general plant pathology : JGPP   67 ( 3 )   231 - 237   2001

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    Language:English   Publisher:Phytopathological Society of Japan  

    Cytopathic effects in orchid leaf tissues infected with Australian, Japanese and Brazilian isolates of Orchid fleck virus(OFV) were indistinguishable and like those previously described in the literature. Cells had an electron-lucent viroplasm with unenveloped rod-shaped virions in the nucleus and cytoplasm, often associated with the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum. Antiserum raised against a Japanese isolate of OFV reacted with Brazilian and Australian isolates in ELISA, and when used for immuno-gold labelling, also reacted in situ with the rod-shaped virions and the intranuclear viroplasm of all three isolates. These results suggest that the viroplasm is where structural proteins accumulate and virions are formed.

    DOI: 10.1007/PL00013018

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    Other Link: http://id.nii.ac.jp/1141/00138246/

  • Calanthe mild mosaic virus, a new potyvirus causing a mild mosaic disease of Calanthe orchid in Japan

    IW Gara, H Kondo, T Maeda, N Inouye, T Tamada

    JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY-PHYTOPATHOLOGISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT   146 ( 7 )   357 - 363   1998.8

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    Calanthe mild mosaic potyvirus (CalMMV), a previously undescribed virus found in several locations in Japan, causes mild leaf mosaic and flower colour breaking of Calanthe plants. CalMMV was mechanically transmitted only to Calanthe sp., Phalaenopsis sp. and Tetragonia expansa of 50 plant species tested and was transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae in a nonpersistent manner. The virus has flexuous particles about 764 nm long and induced the formation of intracellular cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions. The virus particles contain a single polypeptide of 32.0 kDa and a single RNA of mel. weight 3.1 x 10(6). As determined by immune-electron microscopy, CalMMV is distantly related to the Japanese isolate of dendrobium mosaic potyvirus (DeMV-J), but it showed no serological relationship to any of seven other potyviruses. The sequence of the 3'-terminal 1306 nucleotides of the viral genome was determined. The coat protein (CP) coding sequence is predicted to be 804 nucleotides in length, encoding a protein of 268 amino acids with a calculated mel. weight of 30389. The 3' noncoding region is 169 nucleotides long and is followed by a polyadenylate tract. The amino acid sequence of the CP of CalMMV was 73% homologous to that of DeMV-J, but less than 66% to other potyviruses.

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  • Protective roles of two aluminum (Al)-induced genes, HSP150 and SED1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in Al and oxidative stresses

    B Ezaki, RC Gardner, Y Ezaki, H Kondo, H Matsumoto

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS   159 ( 1 )   99 - 105   1998.2

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    We isolated two yeast cDNA clones whose transcripts are induced by aluminum (Al) metal stress. Partial nucleotide sequencing showed that one is the HSP150 gene encoding a secreted heat shock protein, and the other corresponds to the SED1 gene encoding a putative membrane protein. To clarify the biological functions of these genes, we analyzed the sensitivity of gene-disrupted mutants to Al stress and to oxidative stresses. The Al tests indicated that the HSP150 protein served a basal protective role in Al stress, but SED1 did nor, both of the genes had protective roles for oxidative stresses. The results for the HSP150 gene suggest that there is an overlap between Al ion stress, oxidative stress and heat shock stress in yeast. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1097(97)00554-5

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  • Evaluation of Dot-Immunobinding Assay and Rapid Immunofilter Paper Assay for Detection of Cymbidium Mosaic Virus in Orchids

    Annual report   5 ( 1 )   39 - 46   1997.3

  • Comparison of Biologically Different Isolates of Odontoglossum Ringspot Virus from Cymbidium in Japan by Peptide Mapping

    Annual report   5 ( 1 )   31 - 38   1997.3

  • Stunt Disease of Habenaria radiata Caused by a Strain of Watermelon Mosaic Virus 2.

    GARA I Wayan, KONDO Hideki, MAEDA Takanori, INOUYE Narinobu, TAMADA Tetsuo

    Jpn. J. Phytopathol.   63 ( 2 )   113 - 117   1997

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    DOI: 10.3186/jjphytopath.63.113

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  • Altered mitochondrial gene expression in a maternal distorted leaf mutant of Arabidopsis induced by chloroplast mutator

    W Sakamoto, H Kondo, M Murata, F Motoyoshi

    PLANT CELL   8 ( 8 )   1377 - 1390   1996.8

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    chloroplast mutator (chm) of Arabidopsis is a recessive nuclear mutation that causes green and white variegation in leaves and is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion. In this study, we have identified and characterized a mutant observed in F-1 and backcrossed BC1 populations from a cross between chm1-3 and ecotype Columbia. This mutant, maternal distorted leaf (MDL), grows very poorly and is distinguished by distorted rough leaves and aborted flowering organs. Electron microscopic observation showed that in MDL plants, a significant portion of mitochondria are abnormal and appear to be nonfunctional. DNA gel blot end sequence analysis of the MDL mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed rearrangements in two mtDNA fragments associated with rps3-rpl16 genes (encoding ribosomal proteins S3 and L16, respectively). One rearrangement resulted in the insertion of the rps3-rpl16 operon downstream of atp9. An independent deletion in this region had eliminated the majority of rps3. In contrast, another rearrangement deleted part of rpl16, whereas rps3 remained intact. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that expression of these genes is also altered as a consequence of the mtDNA rearrangements. Thus, a mutation at the CHM locus affects mitochondrial gene expression, and impaired mitochondrial function may result in the distorted phenotype.

    DOI: 10.1105/tpc.8.8.1377

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  • Ixiaから分離されたbean yellow mosaic virus

    辻 俊也, 前田 孚憲, 近藤 秀樹

    岡山大学資源生物科学研究所報告   4 ( 2 )   201 - 213   1996.3

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  • Some Properties of Cymbidium Mosaic Virus Isolated from Calanthe spp.

    4 ( 2 )   187 - 199   1996

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  • Detection of the Viruses Occurring in Oriental Cymbidium in Japan

    4 ( 2 )   149 - 162   1996

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  • Orchid Fleck Virus, the Causal Agent of a Yellowish Fleck Mosaic Disease of Calanthe

    INOUYE N.

    Bull. Res. Inst. Bioresour. Okayama Univ.   4 ( 2 )   119 - 135   1996

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  • Further Characterization of Cymbidium Mosaic Virus from Vanda Orchid

    Gara I Wayan, Kondo Hideki, Maeda Takanori, Mitsuhata Koji, Inouye Narinobu

    4 ( 2 )   164 - 174   1996

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  • Characterization of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus from Ixia hybrida

    Tsuji Toshiya, Maeda Takanori, Kondo Hideki, Inouye Narinobu

    4 ( 2 )   201 - 213   1996

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  • Host Range and Some Properties of Orchid Fleck Virus Isolated form Oriental Cymbidium in Japan

    3 ( 2 )   151 - 161   1995

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  • 東洋ラン・Cymbidium属植物から分離されたOdontoglossum ringspot Tobamovirus(ORSV)について

    近藤 秀樹, 前田 孚憲, 井上 成信

    岡山大学資源生物科学研究所報告   1 ( 1 )   p21 - 34   1992.3

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    Other Link: http://agriknowledge.affrc.go.jp/RN/2010471058

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MISC

  • ランのウイルス病 -最新農業技術 花卉- vol.12

    近藤秀樹 (改訂)

    2020

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  • 植物ウイルス大事典. デンドロビウムモザイクウイルス(分担).

    近藤秀樹

    2015.11

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:朝倉書店. 編集 日比, 忠明;大木, 理  

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  • 宿主ゲノム上に存在するRNAウイルス感染記録を紐解く

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会植物感染生理談話会論文集   ( 50 )   133‐142   2015.8

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  • テンサイそう根病の病原ウイルス(BNYVV)の進化と品種抵抗性

    玉田哲男, 近藤秀樹

    植物防疫   68 ( 4 )   168 - 179   2014.4

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  • 分節型ゲノムを持つラブドウイルス

    近藤秀樹

    ウイルス   63 ( 2 )   143 - 154   2013.12

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  • シュンラン退緑斑病(分担)/インターネット版日本植物病害大事典 病害新情報

    近藤 秀樹

    2013

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  • サギソウ萎縮病(分担)/インターネット版日本植物病害大事典 病害新情報

    近藤 秀樹

    2013

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  • The diversity of virus lifestyles in phytopathogenic filamentous fungi.

    佐藤有希代, 佐藤有希代, 近藤秀樹, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会植物感染生理談話会論文集   ( 56 )   2022.9

  • 食用キノコの子実体形成にウイルス感染が果たす役割についての研究(3)

    小松あき子, 佐藤真之, 佐藤真之, 佐藤真之, 近藤秀樹, 西堀耕三, 鈴木信弘, 藤森文啓, 藤森文啓

    東京家政大学生活科学研究所研究報告   39   57‐61 - 61   2016.7

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  • 本邦の稀少ラン科植物に発生するウイルスの性状解明と遺伝子診断技術の開発」

    近藤 秀樹

    八雲環境科学振興財団レポート   2016

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  • Functional Analysis of Viral Infection in the Fruit-Body Formation of Edible Mushroom(2)

    Komatsu Akiko, Sato Masayuki, Kondo Hideki, Sumi Mariko, Tsuchiya Yuki, Kurahashi Atsushi, Nishibori Kozo, Suzuki Nobuhiro, Fujimori Fumihiro

    東京家政大学生活科学研究所研究報告 = Bulletin of Research Institute of Domestic Science, Tokyo Kasei University   38   79 - 84   2015.7

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    東京家政大学生活科学研究所研究報告は、本研究所の本年度の活動成果を取りまとめたものです。本研究報告の内容の一部は、別途学会誌等に発表されることがありますのでご了承ください。

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  • マイナス鎖RNAウイルス研究の新展開-ウイルス化石より見出された菌類ウイルスの実態を解き明かす-

    近藤 秀樹

    生物学に関する試験研究論叢   30   86 - 92   2015

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  • ゲノム上に存在する非レトロウイルス様配列NRVSの特徴付けと存在意義に関する研究

    近藤秀樹

    山陽放送学術文化財団リポート   ( 58 )   38 - 42   2014.9

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  • Functional Analysis of Viral Infection in the Fruit-Body Formation of Edible Mushroom

    Komatsu Akiko, Kondo Hideki, Sato Masayuki, Tsuchiya Yuki, Kurahashi Atsushi, Nishibori Kozo, Suzuki Nobuhiro, Fujimori Fumihiro

    東京家政大学生活科学研究所研究報告 = Bulletin of Research Institute of Domestic Science, Tokyo Kasei University   37   109 - 114   2014.7

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    東京家政大学生活科学研究所研究報告は、本研究所の本年度の活動成果を取りまとめたものです。本研究報告の内容の一部は、別途学会誌等に発表されることがありますのでご了承ください。

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  • Discovery of negative-strand RNA virus infection in fungi.

    Kondo, H, Chiba, S, Suzuki, N

    Proc. Symp. 9th Int. Working Group on Plant Viruses with Fungal Vectors.   55 - 57   2014

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  • 植物および昆虫の核ゲノム上に見いだされたベニウイルス様配列

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報   80 ( 1 )   2014

  • Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1:白紋羽病菌から分離された新規RNAウイルス

    ZHANG Rui, LIU Shengxue, 千葉壮太郎, 近藤秀樹, 兼松聡子, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報   80 ( 1 )   2014

  • Defective interfering(DI)RNAのRosellinia necatrix partitivirus2複製への影響

    LIU Yu-Hsin, 千葉壮太郎, 近藤秀樹, 兼松聡子, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報   79 ( 1 )   2013

  • ビッグベイン症を示すレタスから見いだされる2種ウイルスの細胞間移行タンパク質の同定

    平栗章弘, 植木尚子, 近藤秀樹, 野見山孝司, 一木(植原)珠樹, 佐々木信光, 丹生谷博, 笹谷孝英

    日本植物病理学会報   79 ( 1 )   2013

  • ランのウイルス病とその診断法

    近藤 秀樹

    Orchid Sciences   23   41   2012

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  • 温帯性シンビジウム属植物に発生するウイルス.

    近藤秀樹, 丸山和之, 前田孚憲, 井上成信, 鈴木信弘

    名古屋国際ラン会議NIOC2011記録   22 - 27   2011

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  • 我が国のラン科植物に発生するポチウイルスの分子系統学的解析

    近藤秀樹, I Wayan Gara, 丸山和之, 前田孚憲, 松本純一, 井上成信, 鈴木信弘

    名古屋国際ラン会議NIOC2010記録   10 - 15   2010

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  • ランえそ斑紋ウイルスのダニ伝搬様式,分子系統および診断技術に関する研究

    近藤秀樹, 前田孚憲, 野田瑞紀, 鈴木信弘, 玉田哲男

    名古屋国際ラン会議2009 記録   8 - 13   2009

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  • 分節型ラブド様ウイルス,ランえそ斑紋ウイルスの分子生物学的および分子系統学的解析

    近藤秀樹, 前田孚憲, 玉田哲男

    植物ウイルス病研究会レポート   9 ( 9 )   27 - 36   2008.4

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  • RNAサイレンシングによるテンサイそう根病の抵抗性

    ANDIKA Ida Bagus, 玉掛秀人, 近藤秀樹, 玉田哲男

    植物ウイルス病研究会レポート   ( 8 )   95 - 103   2006.6

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  • Introduction to RNA silencing.

    近藤 秀樹

    Proc. 22nd RIB International Symposium“RNA silencing: Principles and practice”.   3 - 5   2005

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Presentations

  • Two novel negative-strand RNA mycoviruses related to mymonaviruses and phenuiviruses in the Shiitake mushroom

    Kondo, H, Lin, Y-H, Fujita, M, Hyodo, K, Andika, I.B, Suzuki, N

    Asian Mycology 2019 in Mie, Satellite Meeting: Neo-mycovirology.  2019 

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  • Cross-kingdom viral infection in agroecosystems

    Kondo H

    38th IPSR International Symposium and 14th Symposium on Plant Stress Sciences.  2023.2.27 

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  • 農業生態系のウイルス叢解明

    近藤秀樹

    オオムギ研究の未来開拓ワークショップ(岡山大・倉敷キャンパス)  2023.2.8 

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  • ウイルスハンティング最前線 -自然界に存在する生物界をまたいだウイルス感染−

    近藤 秀樹

    室内環境学会室内環境学会・微生物分科会  2018 

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  • 植物ラブドウイルスの分節化と進化

    近藤秀樹, 鈴木信弘

    日本進化学会大会プログラム・WS『多様なウイルスと進化の世界』  2017.8.24 

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  • 分節型ラブドウイルスの感染戦略

    近藤 秀樹

    第39 回 岡山植物病理セミナー  2016 

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  • 宿主ゲノム上に存在する RNA ウイルス感染記録を紐解く

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    平成27年度植物感染生理談話会  2015 

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  • ラン植え戻しに際してのウィルス感染の危険性

    近藤 秀樹

    第4回 みんなで守ろう日本の野生ラン シンポジウム「誰もが実践できるサギソウの自生地の保護、復元活動  2011 

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  • An attempt on cross-protection targeting the pathogenicity-determinant segment RNA 3 of BNYVV.

    近藤花保, 佐藤育男, 竹本大吾, 近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎

    日本植物病理学会報  2024 

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  • Replication of single partitiviruses in organisms across three kingdoms: Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

    TELENGECH Paul Kipkemboi, HYODO Kiwamu, ICHIKAWA Hiroaki, KONDO Hideki, SUZUKI Nobuhiro

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2023 

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  • Comparison of properties between two novel capsidless mycoviruses: a polymycovirus and a hadakavirus.

    佐藤有希代, SHAMSI W., SHAMSI W., JAMAL A., BHATTI M.F., 近藤秀樹, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2021 

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  • Virome analysis of aphid populations that infest the barley field

    近藤秀樹, 藤田美貴, 久野裕, 兵頭究, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2021 

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  • 植物ゲノムへ水平伝播された太古のパルティティウイルス配列

    千葉壮太郎, 近藤秀樹, 谷明生, 最相大輔, 坂本亘, 兼松聡子, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2012 

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  • 非パラレトロRNAウイルス由来の植物染色体遺伝子

    千葉壮太郎, 近藤秀樹, 谷明生, 最相大輔, 坂本亘, 兼松聡子, 鈴木信弘

    日本ウイルス学会学術集会プログラム・抄録集  2010 

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    Event date: 2010

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  • サギソウモザイクウイルスRNAの全塩基配列の決定

    丸山和之, 近藤秀樹, 前田孚憲, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2010 

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  • テッポウユリから分離された新規Carlavirusのゲノム構造の解析

    中村友紀, 伊藤徳臣, 近藤秀樹, 井村喜之, 前田孚憲

    日本植物病理学会報  2010 

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  • Potato virus X(PVX)サブゲノムRNAの蓄積はRNAサイレンシングにより根特異的に抑制される

    ANDIKA I. B., 近藤秀樹, 玉田哲男, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2009 

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    Event date: 2009

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  • (286) Soil-borne Virus-encoded Cysteine-rich Proteins Suppress RNA Silencing in Roots(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    Andika I.B., Kondo H., Tamada T., Suzuki N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2008.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2008.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (266) Assembly of Orchid Fleck Virus-like Particles in Nuclei is Associated with Formation of Viroplasm-like Structure(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    Kondo H., Noda M., Tamada T., Suzuki N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2008.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2008.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (32)Breakdown of RNA Silencing-mediated Resistance in BNYVV 54 kDa-RTD ORF Transgenic Plants by Internal Deletion of 54 kDa-RTD in the Viral Genome(Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division,Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2007)

    Andika I. B., Kondo H., Tamada T., Suzuki N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2008.2.20  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2008.2.20

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (31)The Pathogenicity of M Structural Protein of Orchid Fleck Virus in Nicotiana benthamiana is Suppressed by the Interaction with Nucleocapsid Protein N(Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division,Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2007)

    Kondo H., Tamada T., Suzuki N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2008.2.20  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2008.2.20

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (236) BNYVV p31 is Involved in Silencing Suppression in Roots BNYVV(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    Kondo H., Rahim M.D., Andika I.B., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2007.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2007.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (235) BNYVV and TRV Suppress RNA Silencing in Root-speciFIc Manner(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    Andika I.B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2007.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2007.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (227) Pathological and Genetical Characterization of Resistance to BNYVV in Rub-inoculated Leaves of Beta vulgaris(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    Tamada T., Taguchi K., Chiba S., Andika I.B., Kondo H.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2007.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2007.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Function Analysis of ORF3 Protein Encoded by Orchid fleck virus(Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division,Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2006)

    Kondo H., Nakamura R., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2007.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2007.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • テンサイ接種葉におけるBeet necrotic yellow vein virus抵抗性の病理学的および遺伝学的特性

    玉田哲男, 田口和憲, 千葉壮太郎, ANDIKA I. B., 近藤秀樹

    日本植物病理学会報  2007 

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  • (368) RNA Silencing-mediated Host Recovery in Beet necrotic yellow vein virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana Occurs in Leaves but Not in Roots(Abstract of the Paper Presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting in Sapporo)

    Andika Ida Bagus, Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2006.11.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2006.11.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (367) Characteristics of Systemic Movement of BNYVV in Beta maritima M8(Abstract of the Paper Presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting in Sapporo)

    Tamada T, Andika Ida Bagus, Kondo H.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2006.11.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2006.11.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (360) Identification of the Orchid Fleck Virus Proteins Required for the Formation of OFV-like Particles(Abstract of the Paper Presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting in Sapporo)

    Kondo H., Hirokado C., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2006.11.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2006.11.25

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  • Orchid fleck virus Structural Proteins are Associated with Nuclear Viroplasm-like Structure Formation (Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division,Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 2005)

    Kondo H., Hirokado C., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2006.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2006.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Host Specific-vascular Movement of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division,Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 2005)

    Tamada T., Chiba S., Rahim M. D., Andika I. B., Kondo H.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2006.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2006.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Necrotic Mosaic Symptoms in Beet necrotic yellow vein virus P75-transgenic Plants (Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division,Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 2005)

    Andika I. B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2006.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2006.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (285) Pathogenicity of Structural Proteins of Orchid Fleck Virus in Nicotiana benthamiana(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting in Shizuoka)

    Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2005.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2005.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (286) Interactions and Nuclear Import of Structural Proteins of Orchid Fleck Virus(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting in Shizuoka)

    Hirokado C., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2005.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2005.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (288) HR-like and ER-like Responses Observed in BNYVV-host Interactions(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting in Shizuoka)

    Tamada T., Chiba S., Kondo H.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2005.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2005.8.25

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  • (287) BNYVV P31 is Involved in Severe Symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting in Shizuoka)

    Rahim M. D., Andika I. B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2005.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2005.8.25

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  • (397) Distribution and Long-distance Movement of BNYVV and TRV in Nicotiana benthamiana(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society, Fukuoka, March 28-30, 2004)

    Tamada T, Rahim M. D., Chiba S., Andika I. B., Kondo H., Bouzoubaa S.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.8.25

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  • (399) Suppressor of RNA Silencing Encoded by Benyvirus(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society, Fukuoka, March 28-30, 2004)

    Kondo H., Kurokawa E., Andika Ida Bagus, Chiba S., Nishiguchi M., Bouzoubaa Salah, Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.8.25

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  • (269) A Reovirus of the Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica That Is Infectious as Particles and Related to the Coltivirus Genus of Animal Pathogens(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society, Fukuoka, March 28-30, 2004)

    Hillman B. I., Supyani S., Kondo H., Suzuki N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.8.25

    Language:English  

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  • (398) The RNA Silencing-mediated Resistance to BNYVV : Differences of RNA Degradation in Shoots and Roots(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society, Fukuoka, March 28-30, 2004)

    Andika I. B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.8.25

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  • (85) BNYVV P31 Protein (RNA4) Causes Severe Symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division) (Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2003)

    Han C. G., Rahim M. D., Andika I. B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.2.25

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  • (86) Diversity of BNYVV Genome : Host-specificity of RNA3 and RNA4 (Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division) (Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2003)

    Tamada T., Chiba S., Andika I. B., Rahim M. D., Han C. G., Kondo H.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (84) A High Level of Transgene Transcripts and DNA Methylationare Required for Recovery Phenotype in Virus Gene-transgenic Plants (Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division) (Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Division Meetings of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 2003)

    Andika I. B., Rahim M. D., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2004.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2004.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Identification of Cysteine Residues of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus P25 Gene Required for the Virulence Beet necrotic yellow vien virus(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting in Tokyo)

    Chiba S, Kondo H., Tmada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.8.25

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  • Pathogenicity and Molecular Variability of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus Isolates(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting in Tokyo)

    Tamada T., Imanishi M., CHIba S., Han C. G., Kondo H.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • The RNA Silencing-mediated Resistance to BNYVV : Differences of Resistance Responses to Manual Inoculation and Fungal Inoculation(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting in Tokyo)

    Andika I. B., Rahim M. D., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Identification of RhizomaniaDisease-related Sugar Beet Genes by Suppression Subractive Hybridization(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting in Tokyo)

    Sasai T., Kurokawa E., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Behavior of GFP-labeled BNYVV in Plants

    Chiba S., Han C.G., Kondo H., Bouzoubaa Salah, Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana Transformed with the CP Gene of BNYVV

    Andika I.B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Isolation of the Plant Host Factors Interacted to BNYVV P25 Protein Using Yeast Two-hybrid System

    Kondo H., Kuwana K., Kurokawa E., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2003.2.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2003.2.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (211)Identification of Amino Acids of P25 Protein That Determines Host Genotype Specificity in Resistance to BNYVV

    Chiba S., Miyanishi M., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2002.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2002.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (210)Resistance to BNYVV in Transgenic Plants with 54 k Protein Coding Domain Is Mediated by the RNA Silencing Mechanism

    Andika I.B., Kondo H., Suzuki N., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2002.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2002.8.25

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  • 植物‐微生物相互作用研究の現状と将来展望 I ウイルス病 Benyvirusの宿主適応と病徴出現の分子機構

    玉田哲男, 宮西征揮, 千葉壮太郎, ANDIKA I B, 近藤秀樹

    日本植物病理学会植物感染生理談話会論文集  2002.7.15 

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    Event date: 2002.7.15

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Recovery Phenomenon in Nicotiana benthamiana Expressing the BNYVV Coat Protein Readthrough Protein Gene(Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division)

    Andika I.B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2002.4.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2002.4.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Virus Resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana Transformed with the BNYVV Coat Protein Readthrough Protein Gene

    Andika I.B., Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2001.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2001.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • BNYVV P25 inhibits the Virus Multiplication in Inoculated Leaves of Beet Plants

    Chiba S., Miyanishi M., Kondo H., Nishiguchi M., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2001.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2001.8.25

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  • Nucleotide Sequences of the Intergenic and mRNA Start and Stop Signals in the Orchid fleck virus Genome

    Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2001.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2001.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Detection of the 212kDa Protein of Orchid Fleck Virus(Abstracts Presented at the Meeting of the Kansai Division)

    Kondo H., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  2000.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 2000.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Burdock Mottle Virus Has a High Genome Similarity to Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus

    Hirano S., Kondo H., Maeda T., Tamada T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1999.6.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1999.6.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (287) Genome Structure of Orchid Fleck Virus, a Unique Bipartite Genome Virus that Resembles Rhabdoviruses

    Kondo H., Maeda T., Tamada T., Shirako Y.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1998.8.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1998.8.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (71) Identification of P49 Structural Protein Gene of Orchid Fleck Virus

    KONDO H., MAEDA T., TAMADA T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1997.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1997.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (72) Evidence that Orchid Fleck Virus is Efficiently Transmitted by the Mite, Brevipalpus californicus

    MAEDA T., KONDO H., MITSUHATA K., TAMADA T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1997.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1997.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (329) Nucleotide Sequence of the 3' Terminal Region of a Carlavirus Isolated from Lily(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    ITO S., KONDO H., MAEDA H., TAMADA T., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1997.6.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1997.6.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (332) Identification of P20 Structural Protein Gene of Orchid Fleck Virus(Abstracts of the Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society)

    KONDO H., MAEDA T., INOUE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1997.6.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1997.6.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Analysis of P 26 Structural Protein Gene of Orchid Fleck Virus

    KONDO H., MAEDA T., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1996.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1996.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Characterization of Burdock Mottle Virus

    MAEDA T., HIRANO S., KONDO H., TAMADA T.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1996.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1996.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Nucleotide Sequence of Dendrobium Mosaic Potyvirus Coat Protein Gene

    UEDA M., KONDO H., MAEDA T., INOUE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1996.6.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1996.6.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Morphology and Intracellular Localization of Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV) Isolated from Oriental Cymbidium

    KONDO H., MAEDA T., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1995.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1995.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Carlavirus Isolated from Lily

    MAEDA T., ITO S., KONDO H., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1995.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1995.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Partial Characterization of the Structural Proteins of Orchid Fleck Virus (OFV)

    KONDO H., MAEDA T., GARA I.W., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1995.6.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1995.6.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Purification of Dendrobium Mosaic Virus and Its Serological Relationship to Other Potyviruses Infecting Orchidaccae Plants in Japan

    MAEDA T., UEDA M., KONDO H., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1995.6.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1995.6.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • The Properties of Cymbidium Mosaic Virus Isolated from Vanda

    GARA I.W, KONDO H, MAEDA T, INOUE N

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1994.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1994.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • The Causal Virus of Yellow Mosaic Disease in Calanthe

    INOUE N, MATSUMOTO J, MAEDA T, MITSUHATA K, KONDO H, TAHARA M

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1994.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1994.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Physico-Chemical and Serolagicao Properties of Orchid Fleck Virus Isolated from Oriental Cymbidium

    KONDO H, MAEDA T, MITSUHATA K, INOUE N

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1994.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1994.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Genetic Heterogenity within Isolates of ORSV from Cymbidium Assessed by RNase Protection Assay

    KONDO H., MAEDA T., INOUYE N.

    Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan  1993.12.25  The Phytopathological Society of Japan (PSJ)

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    Event date: 1993.12.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (44) 東洋ランから分離された odontoglossum ringspot virus(ORSV)について (関西部会)

    近藤 秀樹, 前田 孚憲, 井上 成信

    日本植物病理學會報  1992.1.25  日本植物病理学会

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    Event date: 1992.1.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • (11) ラナンキュラス退緑斑症状株から得られた Potyvirus の2,3の性質 (夏季関東部会)

    藤森 文啓, 近藤 秀樹, 兼平 勉, 篠原 正行, 土居 養二

    日本植物病理學會報  1991.1.25  日本植物病理学会

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    Event date: 1991.1.25

    Language:Japanese  

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  • Screening for viruses in RNA-Seq data

    Hideki Komdo

    Mini-symposium on Armillaria viruses. at Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL  2023.6.20 

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  • コムギに感染するベータフレキシ科の新規RNAウイルス.

    近藤秀樹, 吉田直人, 兵頭 究, 久野 裕, 玉田哲男, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集 2022年 札幌(オンライン)  2022 

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  • ウイルス

    近藤秀樹

    第15回植物病害診断教育プログラム  2019.9.9 

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    Presentation type:Public lecture, seminar, tutorial, course, or other speech  

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  • 分節型ラブドウイルスに見いだされたゲノムリアソートメント

    近藤秀樹, 広田恵介, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2018.3.12 

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  • アカクローバーうどんこ病菌より見いだされた新規トティウイルス

    近藤秀樹, 久野昌, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2017.4.12 

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  • Deep sequencing解析により明らかになったBotrytis tulipaeの9種ウイルスによる混合感染

    近藤秀樹, 久野昌, LIN Y. H, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2015.3.10 

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  • 2分節マイナス鎖RNAウイルスであるランえそ斑紋ウイルス(OFV)のmRNAおよびleader RNAの特性

    近藤秀樹, 丸山和之, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2014.5.10 

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  • 植物および昆虫の核ゲノム上に見いだされたベニウイルス様配列

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2014.2.25 

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  • 植物ゲノム上のRNA感染記録から紐解くウイルス-宿主相互作用.

    近藤 秀樹

    第6回植物ストレス科学研究シンポジウム  2014 

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  • 新規benyvirus・burdock mottle virus(BdMoV)と植物・昆虫ゲノム上のbenyvirus類似配列の同定

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, ANDIKA Ida Bagus, 鈴木信弘, 玉田哲男

    日本ウイルス学会学術集会プログラム・抄録集  2013.10.29 

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  • マイナス鎖RNAウイルスの菌類への感染の可能性

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 豊田和弘, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2013.3.21 

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  • マイナス鎖RNAウイルスの菌類への感染の可能性

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 鈴木信弘

    日本ウイルス学会学術集会プログラム・抄録集  2012.10.31 

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  • 植物の核ゲノム上に見いだされるマイナス鎖RNAウイルス様配列

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 梅林絵里, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2012.3.15 

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  • 非レトロRNAウイルス由来の植物染色体配列

    近藤秀樹, 千葉壮太郎, 谷明生, 最相大輔, 坂本亘, 兼松聡子, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2011.3.11 

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  • Cymbidium chlorotic mosaic virusはソベモウイルス属の新規ウイルス種である

    近藤秀樹, 前田孚憲, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2011.2.25 

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  • ランえそ斑紋ウイルス(OFV)の核内viroplasm形成にはNおよびP蛋白質が必要である

    近藤秀樹, 野田瑞紀, 廣門知紗, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会大会プログラム・講演要旨予稿集  2010.3.30 

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  • ランのウイルス病

    近藤 秀樹

    第62回ラン談話会大会  2010 

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  • 徳島県のシンビジウムから分離されたランえそ斑紋ウイルス(OFV)の塩基配列の解析

    近藤秀樹, 野田瑞紀, 広田恵介, 前田孚憲, 玉田哲男, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2009.8.25 

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  • ランえそ斑紋ウイルス(OFV)のヌクレオキャプシドタンパク質遺伝子(N)を用いた分子系統解析

    近藤秀樹, 野田瑞紀, 前田孚憲, 玉田哲男, 鈴木信弘

    日本植物病理学会報  2009.2.25 

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  • ランえそ斑紋ウイルスの構造タンパク質が誘導する核内viroplasm様領域と粒子形成との関連性

    近藤秀樹, 廣門知紗, 玉田哲男, 鈴木信弘

    日本ウイルス学会学術集会プログラム・抄録集  2008.10.1 

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  • ランえそ斑紋ウイルス(OFV)のヌクレオキャプシドタンパク質遺伝子(N)を用いた分子系統解析

    日本植物病理学会・平成20年度関西部会  2008 

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  • Beet necrotic yellow vein virus p31の根特異的サイレンシング抑制効果

    近藤秀樹, RAHIM M. D, ANDIKA I. B, 玉田哲男

    日本植物病理学会報  2007.8.25 

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Works

  • 「本邦の稀少ラン科植物に発生するウイルスの性状解明と遺伝子診断技術の開発」八雲環境科学振興財団 環境研究助成

    近藤 秀樹

    2015

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  • 「ゲノム上に存在する非レトロウイルス様配列NRVSの特徴付けと存在意義に関する研究」山陽放送学術文化財団研究助成

    近藤 秀樹

    2013

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  • 「マイナス鎖RNAウイルス研究の新展開-ウイルス化石より見出された菌類ウイルスの実態を解き明かす-」両備檉園記念財団研究助成

    近藤 秀樹

    2013

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  • 土壌菌により媒介される植物病原性ウイルスの新規防除戦略の構築:「RNAサイレンシングによるウイルスの制御をめざして」ウエスコ学術振興財団研究助成

    近藤 秀樹

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Awards

  • 名古屋国際蘭会議2010 NIOC賞

    2010  

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    Country:Japan

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  • 名古屋国際蘭会議2009 NIOC奨励賞

    2009  

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Research Projects

  • 絶対寄生菌ウイルスの研究プラットフォーム構築と生物防除への挑戦

    Grant number:23K18029  2023.06 - 2026.03

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  挑戦的研究(萌芽)

    近藤 秀樹, 鈴木 信弘

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    Grant amount:\6500000 ( Direct expense: \5000000 、 Indirect expense:\1500000 )

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  • 作物超個体における根圏RNAウイルス叢の実体解明とその生態学的役割

    Grant number:23H02214  2023.04 - 2027.03

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(B)

    近藤 秀樹, 久野 裕, 兵頭 究, 鈴木 信弘

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    Grant amount:\18590000 ( Direct expense: \14300000 、 Indirect expense:\4290000 )

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  • Frontiers in virus research using a model fungus Neurospora crassa

    Grant number:21K19086  2021.07 - 2023.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Exploratory)

    Kondo Hideki

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    Grant amount:\6500000 ( Direct expense: \5000000 、 Indirect expense:\1500000 )

    Fungal virology has made significant contributions to the field of basic virology. However, compared to the research fields of animal and plant viruses, fungi have limited effective model host systems to study virus-host interactions and advance virology research. In this study, we focused on the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, which is a model organism in genetics and molecular biology, and demonstrated its potential as a platform for studying the diversity of mycoviruses, virus-host interactions and host-antiviral mechanisms. Moreover, we were able to identify important host factors involved in fungal antiviral mechanisms, particularly in relation to transcriptional control mechanisms. Through our studies, we have confirmed that N. crassa is a promising model system for advancing both fundamental and applied research in fungal virology.

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  • 作物根圏におけるウイルス叢の多様性とその感染動態から紐解く生態的意義

    Grant number:20H02987  2020.04 - 2023.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    近藤 秀樹, 久野 裕, 兵頭 究, 鈴木 信弘

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    Grant amount:\17680000 ( Direct expense: \13600000 、 Indirect expense:\4080000 )

    本課題では、ムギ類生存圏(特に根系)におけるウイルス叢の多様性・普遍性や動態を紐解き、さらにそれらの未知なる生態学的役割の一端に迫ることを目指している。以下に本年度の研究実績を示す。
    柱①根圏に存在する主要な菌類・昆虫ウイルス群の宿主探索:初年度に引き続き、ムギ類(オオムギ・コムギ)の地上部・根系、さらにアブラムシ、うどんこ病菌などのRNAseqデータを取得した。得られたデータセットはウイルス配列の確認作業や分子系統解析を進めている。さらに、北海道のコムギサンプルより見出された新規フレキシウイルス(WVQ)の解析の結果,当該圃場に三系統が存在し、ライムギにも感染できること、さらに土壌伝染性ウイルスの可能性が高いことを見出している。根系ウイルス叢のリザーバー探索については、本年度はオオムギ根のRNAseqデータに含まれる微生物リードの抽出と配列相同性解析により、微生物叢の概要を調査した。
    柱②根圏ウイルスの生物界を跨ぐ水平伝搬ポテンシャルと宿主への影響:昨年度より継続中のルテオウイルスなど新規植物ウイルスのゲノム解析を進めており、RT-PCRおよびRLM-RACE解析により全長ゲノムRNA配列を確認・決定した。また、圃場のうどんこ病菌のウイルスについては、今年度はdsRNAを鋳型にした全長cDNAのPCR増幅法の検討を進め、そのアンプリコン配列解析により未同定のゲノム末端配列の解析を進めている。
    柱③根圏ウイルス叢の年次変動とムギ類ウイルスの病原性の(再)評価:核酸抽出を伴わない簡易ウイルス診断法(RT-PCRをベースとする)の条件を設定し、一部圃場サンプル(葉)でルテオウイルス等の検出を進めている。現在、圃場オオムギサンプル(保存している過年度のを含む)について網羅的に検定すすめている。また、アブラムシ媒介性新規植物ウイルスについては、チャンバー内試験にて病原性評価を進めている。

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  • Virome of the phytopathogenic fungi: metagenomic analysis and the possible utilization

    Grant number:15K07312  2015.04 - 2018.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Kodno Hideki

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    Grant amount:\5070000 ( Direct expense: \3900000 、 Indirect expense:\1170000 )

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. However, virus discovery in obligate biotrophs such as powdery mildews (ascomycetes) and rust fungi (basidiomycetes) is still very limited. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least nine novel totivirus (genus Totivirus) in this fungus. Similar totvirus-like sequences are found in public transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) libraries of the bean rust fungi. Our data suggests that the horizontal transmission of ancestral totiviruses might have occurred across quite different fungal phyla, between powdery mildews and rust fungi and later evolved within the new host fungus separately.

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  • Endogenization process of non-retroviral RNA virus elements into plant genomes and their pathological significance

    Grant number:24580064  2012.04 - 2015.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    KONDO Hideki, SUZUKI Nobuhiro

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\5590000 ( Direct expense: \4300000 、 Indirect expense:\1290000 )

    Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus-like sequences (NRVSs) have been discovered in the genome of the vertebrates and other eukaryotes. These are considered as fossil RNA viral elements integrated into host genomes by as-yet-known mechanisms. In this study, several novel NRVSs from the genome of the plants, insects and fungi were discovered. The presence of benyvirus-like sequences in the chickpea chromosomes is a second example of plant NRVSs related to positive-sense (+)ssRNA viruses. Benyvirus-related sequences were also found in the chromosomes of blood-sucking insect. In addition, the first (-)RNA virus infection in fungus was evidenced based on a discovery of mononegavirus L-like sequences in the genome of the powdery mildew fungus. Our findings may provide novel insights into the origin and evolution of ssRNA viruses. The possible endogenization process of these NRVSs into the genome and its biological significance on the host were discussed.

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  • Studies on the mechanism of viroplasm formation during plant negative-strand RNA virus infection

    Grant number:21580056  2009 - 2011

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    KONDO Hideki, SUZUKI Nobuhiro

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\4810000 ( Direct expense: \3700000 、 Indirect expense:\1110000 )

    Orchid fleck virus(OFV), a unique two-segmented negative-sense RNA virus, induces an intranuclear electron-lucent viroplasm(inclusion) in infected plant cells. We studied the molecular mechanism by which OFV viroplasms are produced in vivo. Transiently expression examinations by Agrobacterium-infiltration reveled that coexpression of nucleocapsid protein N and the putative phosphoprotein P, in the absence of virus infection, was sufficient for the formation of an intranuclear electron-lucent viroplasm-like structure in Nicotiana benthamiana cells.

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  • Genome transport mechanisms of plant negative-stranded RNA virus

    Grant number:19580048  2007 - 2008

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    KONDO Hideki, SUZUKI Nobuhiro

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\4420000 ( Direct expense: \3400000 、 Indirect expense:\1020000 )

    植物のマイナス鎖RNAウイルスであるOFVをモデルとし、ゲノム輸送に関わると考えられるウイルス因子を解析した。特にウイルスの移行形態とされるvRNP複合体を精製し、構成ウイルス蛋白質を明らかにした。そのうち、ゲノム結合タンパク質であるNの細胞核(複製の場と推定)への輸送にはアクセサリー蛋白質であるPが必要であることを発見した。また、モデル植物における細胞間移行や長距離移行に関する一連の研究も行った。これらの成果は、OFVのゲノム移行輸送機構を理解する上で基礎的な知見となると期待される。

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  • 節足動物により媒介される植物ウイルスの伝搬機構の解析

    Grant number:14760028  2002 - 2004

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  若手研究(B)

    近藤 秀樹

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\2500000 ( Direct expense: \2500000 )

    本研究は植物病原体であるウイルスと媒介者との相互作用を明らかにすることにより、ウイルス伝搬機構を理解することが目的である。最終年度は、ランえそ斑紋ウイルス(OFV)の遺伝子解析に加え、媒介者であるオンシツヒメハダニ側にも焦点をあて解析した。1.ウイルス構造蛋白質を調べたところ、49KはRNA結合能を持ち、26Kは核移行性を示した。さらに20Kは粒子形成に関わると考えられた。非構造タンパク質の38Kは細胞間移行タンパク質の可能性が示唆された。61K蛋白質はシーケンス解析から、ラブドウイルスのG蛋白質に類似性を示し、N末端にシグナル様配列、C末端には膜貫通ドメイン様配列を持つ推定膜蛋白質であった。61Kは成熟ウイルス粒子表面に提示されるスパイク蛋白質と推定されたが、OFVの成熟粒子は非常に少なく、その粒子からの検出は困難であった。一方、植物個体上で継代したウイルス株は、61Kに1塩基欠失や塩基置換が認められる場合もあり、この遺伝子は伝搬性に関与するウイルス因子である可能性が考えられる。2.媒介者であるオンシツヒメハダニの分類学的位置づけを行うため、ミトコンドリアcytochrome oxidase subunit I(MIT-CO1)の保存領域をクローニングし、その塩基配列解析を行った。さらに、ヒメハダニの組織・細胞内所見を電子顕微鏡レベルで観察したが、ダニ体内でのウイルスの分布様式等の詳細を解明するには至らなかった。ウイルス非伝搬ダニ系統の作出を目指し、媒介者であるヒメハダニに対して一定期間高温処理を施した結果、ウイルス伝搬能を喪失したと考えられるダニ系統が得られた。現在、その詳細を解析中である。今後、本研究を発展させるためには、ウイルスの感染性クローンや人工ミニゲノムの作製が急務であり、ウイルス遺伝子(とくに61K)とハダニとの相互作用について解析を進めていく必要がある。

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  • マイナス鎖RNAウイルス遺伝子操作系の確立に関する基礎的研究

    Grant number:12760033  2000 - 2001

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  奨励研究(A)

    近藤 秀樹

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\500000 ( Direct expense: \500000 )

    植物マイナス鎖RNAウイルス遺伝子操作系の確立に向けて、ランえそ斑紋ウイルス(ラブドウイルス)の複製酵素を解析するとともに、ゲノムの転写、複製などに関与するシグナルの解析を行った。
    1.ウイルスの複製、転写シグナル配列の解析:RNA1には5種のタンパク質、RNA2には推定複製酵素をコードされるが、それぞれはモノシストロニックなmRNAとして発現していることがわかった。遺伝子の結合領域には転写の終結配列、介在配列、転写の開始配列が高度に保存されていた。ゲノム3'末端部の非コード領域(リーダー配列)も転写されていることが確認され、ウイルスの転写、複製に重要な働きをしているものと推定された。
    2.ウイルス複製酵素の解析:RNA2の212kDaタンパク質はラブドウイルスとの相同性解析により複製酵素であると考えられる。この遺伝子のmRNAは他のウイルス遺伝子のmRNAに比べて発現量は少ないものであった。この推定複製酵素の一部領域を大腸菌で発現させ、ウサギに免疫して得られた抗血清により、本タンパク質が粒子内に微量存在することが確認された。このことから、ウイルスの感染にはこの推定複製酵素の供給が必須であると示唆された。
    3.ウイルスcDNAのクローニング:ゲノムRNA両端を持つ人工ミニゲノムの作製を行い、GFPをマーカー遺伝子として導入した。さらに、RNA1およびRNA2に対応する各ゲノム全長cDNAのクローニングを行った。これらからin vitroで目的サイズの転写産物を得ることができた。
    以上、本研究課題では植物のマイナス鎖RNAウイルス遺伝子操作系の確立に向け、その基礎的データが得られたものと期待される。

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  • Frontiers in myco-immunity research and new development in relevant phytopathology

    Grant number:21H05035  2021.07 - 2026.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S)

    鈴木 信弘, 近藤 秀樹, 河野 洋治

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    Grant amount:\188240000 ( Direct expense: \144800000 、 Indirect expense:\43440000 )

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  • Virus infection across the three kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia: defense/counter-defense and host adaptation

    Grant number:21K18222  2021.07 - 2025.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Pioneering)  Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Pioneering)

    鈴木 信弘, 近藤 秀樹

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    Grant amount:\25870000 ( Direct expense: \19900000 、 Indirect expense:\5970000 )

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  • Frontier in mycoimmunity research and its new developments in phytopathology

    Grant number:21H04727  2021.04 - 2025.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    鈴木 信弘, 近藤 秀樹, 兵頭 究

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    Grant amount:\41600000 ( Direct expense: \32000000 、 Indirect expense:\9600000 )

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  • Primary and secondary metabolite production mechanism of shochu-producing fungi infected with fungal viruses

    Grant number:20K05791  2020.04 - 2023.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Fujimori Fumihiro

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    Grant amount:\4290000 ( Direct expense: \3300000 、 Indirect expense:\990000 )

    To clarify what kind of changes in biochemical reactions on the host side are caused by fungal viruses that infect Aspergillus luchuensis, and what kind of changes occur in the taste and palatability of brewed sake investigated changes in metabolites. As a result, overt infection with a certain virus decreased citric acid and total acid as primary metabolites, suggesting the influence of the virus on the transcripts of host fungi. The virus produces 1 or 2 enzymes in addition to the RdRp enzyme and CP protein, but 5 patterns of different band have been confirmed, and it is thought that the different expression patterns cause changes in the behavior of the host. We need additional research in future.

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  • Frontier of research on antiviral immunity in phytopathogenic filamentous fugi

    Grant number:17H01463  2017.04 - 2021.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    Suzuki Nobuhiro

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    Grant type:Competitive

    The objective of this project is to explore RNA silencing (RNAi) against fungal viruses in plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. A great progress has been made, leading to several breakthroughs: 1) Discovery of RNAi mediated antiviral defense that requires Dicer but not AGO in the chestnut blight fungus, 2) Identification of the SAGA complex as a transcriptional regulator of fungal RNA silencing, 3) Discovery of a novel antiviral defense mechanism by which virus-induced symptom expression is alleviated by transcriptional upregulation of many host genes upon virus infection in C. parasitica, and 4) Identification of Dicer and SAGA (universal transcriptional coactivator) as the key transcriptional regulators in the new defense 3, indicating the dual role of Dicer at the post-transcriptional and transcriptional levels. These findings will bring about a paradigm shift in RNAi. Fungi are now being established as the third position next to animals and plants in antiviral defense research.

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  • Neo-lifestyle of fungal viruses

    Grant number:16H06436  2016.06 - 2021.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)

    Suzuki Nobuhiro

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    Grant type:Competitive

    The objective of this project is to establish two neo-lifestyles of fungal viruses and explore their generality and ecological significance. First, we have proved the yadokari/ yadonushi nature in Japanese strains of Rosellinia necatrix and revealed its molecular basis. Capsidless yadokari virus 1 (YkV1) highjacks the capsid of yadnushi virus 1 (YnV1) to replicate in the heterocapsid using its own RNA polymerase, while in return YkV1 trans-enhances the replication of YnV1. For the hadaka nature, we have shown that hadaka virus 1 (HadV1) from a Pakistani strain of Fusarium oxysporum exists as a capsidless naked form at least in mycelial homogenates that is accessible by RNase and unable to be pelleted by untracentrifugation. The yadonushi/yadokari nature have been observed not only foreign fungal strains but also in plants, suggesting its generality.

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  • Elucidation of the signaling pathway to the host of basidiomycete virus and functional analysis on fruiting body formation

    Grant number:26450234  2014.04 - 2017.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    FUJIMORI Fumihiro

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    Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\5200000 ( Direct expense: \4000000 、 Indirect expense:\1200000 )

    We isolated two mycoviruses from Grifola flondosa (MAITAKE), and finally identified two viruses as Parititivirus (GfPV1) and RNA Virus (GfRV1). GfPV1 has a capcid protein gene and RdRp protein. And we successfully to purified virions with high centrifugation method and with its sequences, finally we identified as new type of Parititivirus in Grifola flondosa. On the other hand, GfRV1 possibly has no coat proteins, thus tentatively we identified as capcidless virus. Both of them behave as no phenotypic effects as host of the G. flondosa, but treated with cell cycle arrest chemical and low temperature harvest influence its growth. And we created virus free hosts and re-infectious each viruses respectively hosts, thus we are now start to analysis of virus positive vs. virus free hosts gene expression analysis as a microarray. This results will be future study.

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  • Antiviral innate immunity in phytopathogenic fungi

    Grant number:25252011  2013.04 - 2017.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

    SUZUKI Nobuhiro

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    Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\45760000 ( Direct expense: \35200000 、 Indirect expense:\10560000 )

    The objective of this project is to explore RNA silencing (RNAi) as the antiviral innate defense against fungal viruses in plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. Consequently, a great progress has been made, leading to breakthroughs: 1) Discovery of RNAi mediated antiviral defense that requires Dicer but not AGO in Cryphonectria parasitica, 2) Detection of inhibitory effects on RNA silencing activities against RNA and DNA viruses, and transgenes in Pyricularia oryzae, 3) Development of a screening protocol for host factors required for virus perception through transcription induction of key genes of RNAi upon virus infection in C. parasitica, 4) Identification of the SAGA complex as a transcriptional regulator of fungal RNA silencing. These findings will bring about a paradigm shift in RNAi. Fungi are now established as the third position next to animals and plants in antiviral defense research. Note that most of the obtained data were published in international, high-quality journals.

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  • Transmission mechanism of Benyvirus (BNYVV) by the fungus Polymyxa betae

    Grant number:18580042  2006 - 2007

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    TAMADA Tetsuo, KONDO Hideki

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    Grant type:Competitive

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, Benyvirus) causes rhizomania disease of sugar beet and is transmitted by Polymyxa betae. BNYVV has five RNA species (RNA1-5). RNA1 and RNA2 are involved in viral RNA replication, assembly, and cell-to-cell movement, and RNA3 to 5 are associated with vector-mediated infection and disease development in sugar beet roots. GFP-tagged BNYVV (BNYVV-GFP) was constructed by introducing the GFP gene into the coat protein readthrough domain of BNYVV RNA2. BNYVV-GFP was efficiently infectious to local lesion and systemic host plants and infection sites were followed up by expressing the green fluorescence. However, several GFP viruses constructed were not transmitted by P. betae so that we were not able to conduct transmission experiments using BNYVV-GFP. The vascular movement of BNYVV in beet plants was examined using BNYVV-GFP. The virus had difficulty to move from epidermal cells to phloem tissues when rub-inoculated into leaves. In roots, the vector-inoculated virus propagated in any tissues of rootlets, but it was difficult for virus to invade from rootlet tissues into phloem tissues of taproots and stems. Molecular analyses of RNA4-encoded p31 showed that BNYVV p31 plays a multifunctional role in efficient vector transmission, enhanced symptom expression and root-specific silencing suppression. The RNA3-encoded p25 protein is responsible for production of rhizomania symptoms. The presence of the p25 protein also was found to be associated with resistance response in resistant plants. There was a genotype-specific interaction between BNYVV strains and the beet plants. Three amino acid residues 68, 70, and 179 are important in determining the resistance phenotype, and that the host-genotype specificity is controlled by single amino acid changes at position 68. BNYVV resistance mechanisms in root and leaf may be different: the resistance appearing in leaves was stronger than that appearing in roots.

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  • 病原性・非病原性遺伝子として機能するBNYVV P25タンパク質の解析

    Grant number:12052220  2000

    日本学術振興会  科研費・特定領域研究A公募 (分担)  特定領域研究(A)

    玉田 哲男, 近藤 秀樹

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    Grant type:Competitive

    1.判別宿主(Beta maritima)の選抜と遺伝的特性
    BNYVV(分離株O11)をテンサイの葉に汁液接種すると,感受性品種では黄色斑の感受性反応(S)を,抵抗性品種では,壊死斑,小斑点,無病斑などの抵抗性反応(R)を示し,接種葉でも感受性と抵抗性を識別することが可能となった.テンサイ野生種B.maritima 9種について検定した結果,B.maritima系統によって反応が異なり,多くは感受性反応と抵抗性反応を示す個体が混在していた.抵抗反応の異なる2つのラインを選抜し,MR1,MR2と名付けた.抵抗性,感受性集団の後代検定から,BNYVVに対するB.maritimaの抵抗性は優性遺伝子によって支配されていると推定された.
    2.抵抗性反応に関与するP25遺伝子の解析
    各種BNYVV分離株は,B.maritima MR1,MR2に対する抵抗反応の違いから,MB1のみに抵抗性,MR1とMR2の両者に抵抗性,両者に感受性を示すグループに分けられた.抵抗反応を示す宿主では,接種葉におけるウイルスの蓄積がみられないか,または著しく抑制された.この抵抗反応はP25タンパク質(219アミノ酸)の発現によって誘導されることが示された.すなわち,P25遺伝子欠損ウイルスでは,いずれの組み合わせにおいても抵抗反応は起こらずに病斑は退緑斑のまま拡大し,ウイルスの蓄積が認められた.各種野生分離株の比較および感染性クローンを用いた変異導入実験から,P25タンパク質の68-70番目のアミノ酸がB.maritaima MR1に対する抵抗反応を支配していることが証明された.

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  • Transmission mechanism of plant viruses transmitted by the fungus Polymyxa betae

    Grant number:09460028  1997 - 1999

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    TAMADA Tetsuo, KONDO Hideki, MAEDA Takanori

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    Grant type:Competitive

    Grant amount:\11000000 ( Direct expense: \11000000 )

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae, contains five ssRNA species (RNAs 1 to 5). BNYVV was transmitted by the biotype of P. batae from sugar beets, but not by the other biotypes from Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea. Although host ranges of BNYVV and the vector were thought to be limited to only few species such as Chenopdiaceae species, P. betae zoospores were found to infect a wide range of plant species, and also BNYVV infected roots of several plant species of them. Nicotiana benthamiana is a good indicator host. The coat protein is encoded by the 5' proximal ORF of RNA2, and the terminal codon of this ORF can be suppressed, which results in the production of a 75 kDa readthrough (RT) protein. Mutagenic analysis revealed that a region within the N-terminal half of the RT domain is involved in virus assembly, whereas the C-terminal protein contains sequences important for fungus transmission. Infectious cDNA clones to BNYVV RNAs 3,4 and 5 were established. Fungal inoculation tests with isolates containing different combinations of RNAs 3, 4 and 5 showed that RNA3 and RNA5 are involved in symptom expression. The 25 kDA protein encoded by RNA3 was responsible for rhizomania of susceptible cultivars of sugar beet, and also was involved in resistant reaction in resistant cultivars. When RNA5, encoding the 26 kDA protein, was present, the root symptoms were more intense, Antisera against 25 kDA AND 26 kDA protein, were obtained. It was suggested that expressions of these proteins in infected plant are strongly involved in symptom development. RNA4 was not associated with symptom expression, but acted as increasing transmission efficiency and stability. Synergistic effects were found between RNA4 and RNA3 or RNA5.

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  • Survey and evaluation of sources of genetic resistance in wild plants to plant viruses and mechanisms of resistance

    Grant number:09660352  1997 - 1999

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    MAEDA Takanori, KONDO Hideki, ENOMOTO Takashi

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    Grant amount:\3200000 ( Direct expense: \3200000 )

    1. Construction of a database of viruses occurring in wild plants in Japan.
    A database of viruses occurring in wild plants was constructed. The data were collected from original articles and abstracts in phytopathological journals and from some scientific reports published in Japan. The database contains 489 records consist of plant virus name, abbreviation, genus, plant name, location, author, journal, page and year.
    2. Survey of viruses in wild plants in Japan.
    A survey of viruses occurring in wild plants in Japan was conducted. Viruses were detected from 63 wild plants showing virus disease like symptoms and viruses from 50 plants out of them were identified.
    3. Turnip mosaic virus isolated from Calanthe spp.
    A potyvirus isolated from Calanthe discover var. bicolor showing chlorotic streak mosaic on the leaves was identified as turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). The virus was transmitted by sap-inoculation to 33 of 52 plant species in 10 of 12 families. The isolate differed from five TuMV isolates from other plant species in its host-reactions to Nicotiana glutinosa and Raphanus sativus cultivars. The isolate and the other isolates reacted with antisera to virus particles of the statice isolate and the fragments of its cylindrical inclusions, suggesting that this isolate was serologically very similar to the other TuMV isolates.
    4. Development and evaluation of serological methods for detection of plant viruses
    (1) Evaluation of triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS ELISA).
    TAS ELISA using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was evaluated for detection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). It was demonstrated that TAS ELISA is a sensitive method for detection of TSWV from individual thrips (vector of TSWV) and CMV from infected leaves.
    (2) Development of a new method of direct tissue-blot immunoassay
    A new method of direct tissue-blot immunoassay was developed. This method is useful for visualization of virus distributions in whole infected leaves.

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  • マイコウイルスの分子生物学

    生研センター・イノベーション創出基礎的研究推進事業 

    近藤 秀樹

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    Authorship:Principal investigator  Grant type:Competitive

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Class subject in charge

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2023academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2023academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2023academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2023academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2023academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2023academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Seminar in Virology (2023academic year) Year-round  - その他

  • Applied Plant Virology (2023academic year) Late  - その他

  • Applied Plant Virology (2023academic year) Late  - その他

  • Plant Virology (2023academic year) 1st semester  - 木3,木4

  • Plant-Virus/Bacteria Interactions (2023academic year) Prophase  - 木5~8

  • Plant-Virus/Bacteria Interactions (2023academic year) Prophase  - 木9~12

  • Advanced Study (2023academic year) Other  - その他

  • Specific Research of Bioresources Science (2023academic year) Year-round  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2022academic year) Prophase  - その他

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  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2022academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2022academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Applied Plant Virology (2022academic year) Late  - その他

  • Plant Virology (2022academic year) 1st semester  - 木3,木4

  • Plant-Virus/Bacteria Interactions (2022academic year) Prophase  - 木9~12

  • Specific Research of Bioresources Science (2022academic year) Year-round  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2021academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2021academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2021academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2021academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Applied Plant Virology (2021academic year) Late  - その他

  • Plant Virology (2021academic year) 1st semester  - 木3,木4

  • Plant-Virus/Bacteria Interactions (2021academic year) Prophase  - 木9~12

  • Specific Research of Bioresources Science (2021academic year) Year-round  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2020academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2020academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2020academic year) Late  - その他

  • Seminar in Molecular Virology (2020academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Applied Plant Virology (2020academic year) Late  - その他

  • Plant Virology (2020academic year) 1st semester  - 木3,木4

  • Plant-Virus/Bacteria Interactions (2020academic year) Prophase  - その他

  • Specific Research of Bioresources Science (2020academic year) Year-round  - その他

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Social Activities

  • 悪いヤツだけじゃない!〜植物と関わるウイルスたち〜

    Role(s):Lecturer

    おかやま高梁川流域 倉敷市大学連携講座  2023.10.28

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    Type:Lecture

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