Updated on 2021/07/21

写真a

 
OKOSHI Hirofumi
 
Organization
Humanities and Social Sciences Lecturer
Position
Lecturer
Contact information
メールアドレス
External link

Degree

  • Ph.D. in Economics ( 2020.7   University of Munich )

  • 修士(経済学) ( 2015.3   一橋大学大学院 )

  • 学士(経済学) ( 2013.3   学習院大学 )

Research Interests

  • International Taxation

  • Transfer Pricing

  • Trade Policy

Research Areas

  • Humanities & Social Sciences / Economic policy  / International Taxation, Trade Policy, Transfer Pricing

Education

  • University of Munich   Munich Graduate School of Economics  

    2017.10 - 2020.8

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    Country: Germany

    Notes: Begin to work at Okayama Univeristy (since Apr 2020). Defense of my dissertation (July 2020)

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  • Hitotsubashi University   Graduate School of Economics   Applied Economics Area

    2013.4 - 2015.3

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    Country: Japan

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  • Gakushuin University   Faculty of Economics   Department of Economics

    2010.4 - 2013.3

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    Country: Japan

    Notes: Early graduation (3 years)

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Research History

  • Okayama University   Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences   Senior assistant professor

    2020.4

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    Country:Japan

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Professional Memberships

 

Papers

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Presentations

  • Antidumping rules and preventive transfer pricing

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    The 79th Annual Meeting of The Japan Society of International Economics  2020.10.17 

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    Event date: 2020.10.17 - 2020.10.18

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

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  • Tariff elimination versus tax avoidance: Free trade agreements and transfer pricing

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    76th Annual Congress of International Institute of Public Finance  2020.8.19 

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    Event date: 2020.8.18 - 2020.8.20

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

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  • Tariff elimination versus tax avoidance: Free trade agreements and transfer pricing International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    ETSG 2019 Bern Twenty-first Annual Conference  2019.9.14  European Trade Study Group, University of Bern

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    Event date: 2019.9.12 - 2019.9.14

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Bern  

    This study explores the new roles of rules of origin (ROO) when multinational enterprises (MNEs) manipulate their transfer prices to avoid a high corporate tax. ROO of a free trade agreement (FTA) require exporters to identify the origin of exports to be eligible for a preferential tariff rate. The results suggest that a value-added criterion of ROO restricts MNEs’ abusive transfer pricing. Interestingly, an FTA with ROO can induce MNEs to shift profits from a low-tax country to a high-tax country. Because ROO augment tax revenues inside FTA countries, they can transform a welfare-reducing FTA into a welfare-improving FTA.

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  • Economic integration and agglomeration of multinational production with transfer pricing International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    ERSA 59th Congress  2019.8.30  European Regional Science Association, University of Lyon

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    Event date: 2019.8.27 - 2019.8.30

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Lyon  

    Do low corporate taxes always favor multinational production in the course of economic integration? We build a two-country spatial model with different corporate tax rates in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) can manipulate transfer prices in intra-firm trade. Using transfer pricing, MNEs can shift profits between domestic production plants and foreign distribution affliates. In the beginning of integration, MNEs' plants are concentrated in the low-tax country, and in the later stage, this location pattern reverses. High taxes may favor multinational production; but it does not guarantee greater tax revenues. We also analyze tax competition between two unequal-sized countries and show that profit shifting leads to tougher competition.

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  • Innovation for tax avoidance: Product differentiation and the arm's length principle International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    IIPF 75th Annual Congress  2019.8.22  International Institute of Public Finance, University of Glasgow

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    Event date: 2019.8.21 - 2019.8.23

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Glasgow  

    High product differentiation enhances consumers’ utility and firms’ profits but at the same time makes it difficult for tax authorities to audit MNEs’ tax avoidance strategies, as the arm’s length principle is difficult to apply. This paper combines these two aspects of product differentiation and studies the interrelation between profit shifting and product differentiation. The model shows that MNEs engage in more investment in product differentiation in the presence of profit shifting opportunities and globalization accelerates the investment. the model also show that globalization can improve welfare in a non-tax haven.

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  • Innovation for tax avoidance: Product differentiation and the arm's length principle

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    International Conference on Public Economic Theory 2019  2019.7.11  Association for Public Economic Theory , University of Strasbourg

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    Event date: 2019.7.9 - 2019.7.11

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Strasboug  

    High product differentiation enhances consumers’ utility and firms’ profits but at the same time makes it difficult for tax authorities to audit MNEs’ tax avoidance strategies, as the arm’s length principle is difficult to apply. This paper combines these two aspects of product differentiation and studies the interrelation between profit shifting and product differentiation. The model shows that MNEs engage in more investment in product differentiation in the presence of profit shifting opportunities and globalization accelerates the investment. the model also show that globalization can improve welfare in a non-tax haven.

    researchmap

  • Economic integration and agglomeration of multinational production with transfer pricing International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    The 15th Meeting of the Asia Pacific Trade Seminars  2019.6.29  Asia Pasicif Trade Seminars, University of Tokyo

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    Event date: 2019.6.29 - 2019.6.30

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Tokyo  

    Do low corporate taxes always favor multinational production in the course of economic integration? We build a two-country spatial model with different corporate tax rates in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) can manipulate transfer prices in intra-firm trade. Using transfer pricing, MNEs can shift profits between domestic production plants and foreign distribution affliates. In the beginning of integration, MNEs' plants are concentrated in the low-tax country, and in the later stage, this location pattern reverses. High taxes may favor multinational production; but it does not guarantee greater tax revenues. We also analyze tax competition between two unequal-sized countries and show that profit shifting leads to tougher competition.

    researchmap

  • Economic integration and agglomeration of multinational production with transfer pricing International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Munich Young Economics' Meeting 2019  2019.6.13  University of Munich, GRK1928 Cohort 2016-2017

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    Event date: 2019.6.12 - 2019.6.14

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Kochek am See, Barvaria  

    Do low corporate taxes always favor multinational production in the course of economic integration? We build a two-country spatial model with different corporate tax rates in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) can manipulate transfer prices in intra-firm trade. Using transfer pricing, MNEs can shift profits between domestic production plants and foreign distribution affliates. In the beginning of integration, MNEs' plants are concentrated in the low-tax country, and in the later stage, this location pattern reverses. High taxes may favor multinational production; but it does not guarantee greater tax revenues. We also analyze tax competition between two unequal-sized countries and show that profit shifting leads to tougher competition.

    researchmap

  • Economic integration and agglomeration of multinational production with transfer pricing International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    European Doctral Group of Economics Jamboree  2018.9.6  University of Munich

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    Event date: 2018.9.6 - 2018.9.7

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Munich  

    Do low corporate taxes always favor multinational production in the course of economic integration? We build a two-country spatial model with different corporate tax rates in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) can manipulate transfer prices in intra-firm trade. Using transfer pricing, MNEs can shift profits between domestic production plants and foreign distribution affliates. In the beginning of integration, MNEs' plants are concentrated in the low-tax country, and in the later stage, this location pattern reverses. High taxes may favor multinational production; but it does not guarantee greater tax revenues. We also analyze tax competition between two unequal-sized countries and show that profit shifting leads to tougher competition.

    researchmap

  • Production location of multinational firms under transfer pricing: The impact of the arm's length principle International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    IIPF 74th Annual Congress  2018.8.21  International Institute of Public Finance

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    Event date: 2018.8.21 - 2018.8.23

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Tampere  

    When multinational enterprises (MNEs) separate the geographical location of affiliates, they can shift profits between the affiliates by manipulating intra-firm prices of inputs. We show that if the international tax difference between the parent and the host countries is large, MNEs choose to separately locate their affiliates in the two countries. We also investigate the impact of the arm’s length principle (ALP) on the location choice, which requires that the intra-firm price of inputs should be set equal to the price of similar inputs for the independent downstream firms. The ALP may change the location choice of MNEs, bringing smaller tax revenues to the host country, but greater revenues globally.

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  • Production location of multinational firms under transfer pricing: The impact of the arm's length principle International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    GEP 17th Annual Postgraduate Conference  2018.4.19  University of Nottingham, Centre for Economic Policy Research, GEP

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    Event date: 2018.4.19 - 2018.4.20

    Language:English   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Venue:Univeresity of Nottingham  

    When multinational enterprises (MNEs) separate the geographical location of affiliates, they can shift profits between the affiliates by manipulating intra-firm prices of inputs. We show that if the international tax difference between the parent and the host countries is large, MNEs choose to separately locate their affiliates in the two countries. We also investigate the impact of the arm’s length principle (ALP) on the location choice, which requires that the intra-firm price of inputs should be set equal to the price of similar inputs for the independent downstream firms. The ALP may change the location choice of MNEs, bringing smaller tax revenues to the host country, but greater revenues globally.

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  • Wake not a sleeping lion: Free trade agreements and decision rights in multinationals Invited

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    JSIE Chubu-Kansai joint workshop  2020.12.5 

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    Language:Japanese  

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  • Tariff elimination versus tax avoidance: Free trade agreements and transfer pricing Invited

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Workshop on International Economics  2020.2.26  Osaka University

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Osaka University  

    This study explores the new roles of rules of origin (ROO) when multinational enterprises (MNEs) manipulate their transfer prices to avoid a high corporate tax. ROO of a free trade agreement (FTA) require exporters to identify the origin of exports to be eligible for a preferential tariff rate. The results suggest that a value-added criterion of ROO restricts MNEs’ abusive transfer pricing. Interestingly, an FTA with ROO can induce MNEs to shift profits from a low-tax country to a high-tax country. Because ROO augment tax revenues inside FTA countries, they can transform a welfare-reducing FTA into a welfare-improving FTA.

    researchmap

  • Innovation for tax avoidance: Product differentiation and the arm's length principle

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Japanese Society of International Economics Kanto  2019.12.21  Japan Society of International Economics Kanto

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Nihon University  

    High product differentiation enhances consumers’ utility and firms’ profits but at the same time makes it difficult for tax authorities to audit MNEs’ tax avoidance strategies, as the arm’s length principle is difficult to apply. This paper combines these two aspects of product differentiation and studies the interrelation between profit shifting and product differentiation. The model shows that MNEs engage in more investment in product differentiation in the presence of profit shifting opportunities and globalization accelerates the investment. the model also show that globalization can improve welfare in a non-tax haven.

    researchmap

  • Tariff elimination versus tax avoidance: Free trade agreements and transfer pricing Invited International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Summer Workshop on Economic Theory (International Economics)  2019.8.4  Otaru University of Commerce

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Otaru University of Commerce Sapporo Satellite  

    This study explores the new roles of rules of origin (ROO) when multinational enterprises (MNEs) manipulate their transfer prices to avoid a high corporate tax. ROO of a free trade agreement (FTA) require exporters to identify the origin of exports to be eligible for a preferential tariff rate. The results suggest that a value-added criterion of ROO restricts MNEs’ abusive transfer pricing. Interestingly, an FTA with ROO can induce MNEs to shift profits from a low-tax country to a high-tax country. Because ROO augment tax revenues inside FTA countries, they can transform a welfare-reducing FTA into a welfare-improving FTA.

    researchmap

  • Tariff elimination versus tax avoidance: Free trade agreements and transfer pricing

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Public Economics Ph.D. Seminar  2019.7.23  University of Munich

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Munich  

    This study explores the new roles of rules of origin (ROO) when multinational enterprises (MNEs) manipulate their transfer prices to avoid a high corporate tax. ROO of a free trade agreement (FTA) require exporters to identify the origin of exports to be eligible for a preferential tariff rate. The results suggest that a value-added criterion of ROO restricts MNEs’ abusive transfer pricing. Interestingly, an FTA with ROO can induce MNEs to shift profits from a low-tax country to a high-tax country. Because ROO augment tax revenues inside FTA countries, they can transform a welfare-reducing FTA into a welfare-improving FTA.

    researchmap

  • Innovation for tax avoidance: Production differentiation and the arm's length principle

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    International Trade and Investment Workshop  2019.7.4  Hitotsubashi University

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Hitotsubashi University  

    High product differentiation enhances consumers’ utility and firms’ profits but at the same time makes it difficult for tax authorities to audit MNEs’ tax avoidance strategies, as the arm’s length principle is difficult to apply. This paper combines these two aspects of product differentiation and studies the interrelation between profit shifting and product differentiation. The model shows that MNEs engage in more investment in product differentiation in the presence of profit shifting opportunities and globalization accelerates the investment. the model also show that globalization can improve welfare in a non-tax haven.

    researchmap

  • Innovation for tax avoidance: Product differentiation and the arm's length principle

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Public Economics Ph.D. Seminar  2019.2.5  University of Munich

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Munich  

    High product differentiation enhances consumers’ utility and firms’ profits but at the same time makes it difficult for tax authorities to audit MNEs’ tax avoidance strategies, as the arm’s length principle is difficult to apply. This paper combines these two aspects of product differentiation and studies the interrelation between profit shifting and product differentiation. The model shows that MNEs engage in more investment in product differentiation in the presence of profit shifting opportunities and globalization accelerates the investment. the model also show that globalization can improve welfare in a non-tax haven.

    researchmap

  • Tax havens and cross-border licensing

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Public Economics Ph.D. Seminar  2019.1.20  University of Munich

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Munich  

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are incentivized to use transfer pricing in tax planning when corporate tax rates differ in different countries. The incentive is stronger when MNEs own intangible assets which can easily be shifted across countries. To mitigate such strategic avoidance of tax payments, the OECD proposed the arm's length principle (ALP). This paper investigates how the ALP affects MNEs' licensing strategies and welfare in the presence of a tax haven. We specifically deal with two methods of the ALP: the comparable uncontrolled price method and the transactional net margin method. The ALP may distort MNEs' licensing decisions, because providing a license to unrelated firms restricts the MNE's profit-shifting opportunities due to the emergence of comparable transactions. In particular, the avoidance of licensing in the presence of the ALP may worsen domestic welfare if the licensee and the MNE’s subsidiary do not compete in the domestic market, but may improve welfare if they compete.

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  • Production location of multinational firms under transfer pricing: The impact of the arm's length principle

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    CES ifo Public Economic Seminar  2018.6.7  University of Munich

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Munich  

    When multinational enterprises (MNEs) separate the geographical location of affiliates, they can shift profits between the affiliates by manipulating intra-firm prices of inputs. We show that if the international tax difference between the parent and the host countries is large, MNEs choose to separately locate their affiliates in the two countries. We also investigate the impact of the arm’s length principle (ALP) on the location choice, which requires that the intra-firm price of inputs should be set equal to the price of similar inputs for the independent downstream firms. The ALP may change the location choice of MNEs, bringing smaller tax revenues to the host country, but greater revenues globally.

    researchmap

  • Economic integration and agglomeration of multinational production with transfer pricing

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    CES ifo Public Economic Seminar  2018.2.1  University of Munich

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:University of Munich  

    Do low corporate taxes always favor multinational production in the course of economic integration? We build a two-country spatial model with different corporate tax rates in which multinational enterprises (MNEs) can manipulate transfer prices in intra-firm trade. Using transfer pricing, MNEs can shift profits between domestic production plants and foreign distribution affliates. In the beginning of integration, MNEs' plants are concentrated in the low-tax country, and in the later stage, this location pattern reverses. High taxes may favor multinational production; but it does not guarantee greater tax revenues. We also analyze tax competition between two unequal-sized countries and show that profit shifting leads to tougher competition.

    researchmap

  • Production location of multinational firms under transfer pricing: The impact of the arm's length principle

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Japanese Society of International Economics Kanto  2017.5.20  Japanese Society of International Economics Kanto

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Nihon University  

    When multinational enterprises (MNEs) separate the geographical location of affiliates, they can shift profits between the affiliates by manipulating intra-firm prices of inputs. We show that if the international tax difference between the parent and the host countries is large, MNEs choose to separately locate their affiliates in the two countries. We also investigate the impact of the arm’s length principle (ALP) on the location choice, which requires that the intra-firm price of inputs should be set equal to the price of similar inputs for the independent downstream firms. The ALP may change the location choice of MNEs, bringing smaller tax revenues to the host country, but greater revenues globally.

    researchmap

  • Production location of multinational firms under transfer pricing: The impact of the arm's length principle International conference

    Hirofumi Okoshi

    Hitotsubashi-Sogang Trade Workshop  2017.2.22  Hitotsubashi University, Sogang University

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    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Venue:Hitotsubashi University  

    When multinational enterprises (MNEs) separate the geographical location of affiliates, they can shift profits between the affiliates by manipulating intra-firm prices of inputs. We show that if the international tax difference between the parent and the host countries is large, MNEs choose to separately locate their affiliates in the two countries. We also investigate the impact of the arm’s length principle (ALP) on the location choice, which requires that the intra-firm price of inputs should be set equal to the price of similar inputs for the independent downstream firms. The ALP may change the location choice of MNEs, bringing smaller tax revenues to the host country, but greater revenues globally.

    researchmap

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Research Projects

  • Analyses on Multinationals' Tax Avoidance and the Arm's Length Principle: Viewpoints from Product Differentiation

    Grant number:20K22122  2020.09 - 2022.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up  Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up

    大越 裕史

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    Grant amount:\2730000 ( Direct expense: \2100000 、 Indirect expense:\630000 )

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Class subject in charge

  • Graduation Research Seminar (2021academic year) 1st and 2nd semester  - その他

  • Graduation Research Seminar (2021academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - その他

  • Seminar (2021academic year) 1st and 2nd semester  - 月7~8

  • Seminar (2021academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 月7~8

  • International Economics (2021academic year) special  - その他

  • International Economics (2021academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 水10

  • International Economics (2021academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 水10

  • International Economics I (2021academic year) 1st and 2nd semester  - 水1~2

  • International Economics II (2021academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 水1~2

  • International Economics II (2021academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 水1~2

  • Seminar on International Economics 1 (2021academic year) Prophase  - 火1

  • Seminar on International Economics 1 (2021academic year) special  - その他

  • Seminar on International Economics 2 (2021academic year) Late  - 火1

  • Seminar on International Economics 2 (2021academic year) special  - その他

  • Basic Seminar (2021academic year) Third semester  - 金7~8

  • Graduation Research Seminar (2020academic year) 1st and 2nd semester  - その他

  • Graduation Research Seminar (2020academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - その他

  • Seminar (2020academic year) 1st and 2nd semester  - 金7,金8

  • Seminar (2020academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 木7,木8

  • International Economics (2020academic year) special  - その他

  • International Economics (2020academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 水3,水4

  • Seminar on International Economics 1 (2020academic year) special  - その他

  • Seminar on International Economics 2 (2020academic year) special  - その他

  • Seminar on International Economics A (2020academic year) 1st and 2nd semester  - 木10

  • Seminar on International Economics B (2020academic year) 3rd and 4th semester  - 金9

  • International Economics 1 (2020academic year) Prophase  - 火1

  • International Economics 2 (2020academic year) Late  - 火1

  • Basic Seminar (2020academic year) 1st semester  - 月7,月8

  • Basic Seminar (2020academic year) Third semester  - 火7,火8

  • Basic Seminar (2020academic year) Fourth semester  - 火7,火8

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