Updated on 2024/04/06

写真a

 
HIROBE Muneto
 
Organization
Faculty of Environmental, Life, Natural Science and Technology Professor
Position
Professor
External link

Degree

  • 博士(農学) ( 京都大学 )

Research Interests

  • 森林・物質循環・土壌

  • Forest Ecology / Nutrient Cycling

Research Areas

  • Life Science / Forest science

Professional Memberships

 

Papers

  • The Impact of Phenological Gaps on Leaf Characteristics and Foliage Dynamics of an Understory Dwarf Bamboo, Sasa kurilensis Reviewed

    Chongyang Wu, Ryota Tanaka, Kyohei Fujiyoshi, Yasuaki Akaji, Muneto Hirobe, Naoko Miki, Juan Li, Keiji Sakamoto, Jian Gao

    Plants   13 ( 5 )   719 - 719   2024.3

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:MDPI AG  

    Phenological gaps exert a significant influence on the growth of dwarf bamboos. However, how dwarf bamboos respond to and exploit these phenological gaps remain enigmatic. The light environment, soil nutrients, leaf morphology, maximum photosynthetic rate, foliage dynamics, and branching characteristics of Sasa kurilensis were examined under the canopies of Fagus crenata and Magnolia obovata. The goal was to elucidate the adaptive responses of S. kurilensis to phenological gaps in the forest understory. The findings suggest that phenological gaps under an M. obovata canopy augment the available biomass of S. kurilensis, enhancing leaf area, leaf thickness, and carbon content per unit area. However, these gaps do not appreciably influence the maximum photosynthetic rate, total leaf number, leaf lifespan, branch number, and average branch length. These findings underscore the significant impact of annually recurring phenological gaps on various aspects of S. kurilensis growth, such as its aboveground biomass, leaf morphology, and leaf biochemical characteristics. It appears that leaf morphology is a pivotal trait in the response of S. kurilensis to phenological gaps. Given the potential ubiquity of the influence of phenological gaps on dwarf bamboos across most deciduous broadleaf forests, this canopy phenomenon should not be overlooked.

    DOI: 10.3390/plants13050719

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  • Two closely related species of the Arisaema ovale group (Araceae) selectively attract male fungus gnats of different Anatella species (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) Reviewed

    Tetsuya K. Matsumoto, Masahiro Sueyoshi, Shigetaka Sakata, Yuko Miyazaki, Muneto Hirobe

    Plant Systematics and Evolution   309   4   2023.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1007/s00606-022-01839-7

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  • Gall midge pollination and ant-mediated fruit dispersal of Pinellia tripartita (Araceae) Reviewed

    Tetsuya K. Matsumoto, Motoya Onoue, Takashi Miyake, Kentaro Ohnishi, Kiyoto Takazoe, Muneto Hirobe, Yuko Miyazaki

    Plant Ecology   2022.12

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    DOI: 10.1007/s11258-022-01278-x

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    Other Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11258-022-01278-x/fulltext.html

  • Spatial and functional niche overlap between invasive Ligustrum lucidum and native woody species in an urban shrine forest in Japan Reviewed

    H. Roaki Ishii, Chinatsu Hara, Keita Kashiwagi, Momoko Okabe, Yuiko Noguchi, Muneto Hirobe

    Landscape and Ecological Engineering   18 ( 1 )   1 - 10   2022.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    Preventing invasion of exotic species into urban forests is important for sustaining native species diversity. In Japan, Ligustrum lucidum, an invasive tree, has become widespread in urban areas. Here, we investigated the spread of L. lucidum in a semi-natural, urban shrine forest to infer which native species' preferred habitats may be affected. L. lucidum was most abundant near the artificially created forest edge where canopy trees are pruned regularly. Spatial distribution of L. lucidum overlapped with those of two native species (Cinnamomum japonicum, Quercus glauca), but was segregated from the other three native species. We also compared leaf functional traits between L. lucidum and the native species to infer functional niche overlap. L. lucidum exhibited greater plasticity of leaf functional traits compared to native species and its leaf functional traits were similar with Ci. japonicum, Ilex rotunda and Q. glauca, but not with Camelia japonica and Ternstroemia gymnanthera. Our results suggest that, currently, the preferred habitat and realized functional niche of L. lucidum overlaps with those of Ci. japonicum and Q. glauca. High plasticity of leaf functional traits contributing to shade tolerance may allow L. lucidum to expand its spatial distribution in this forest, affecting other native species in the future. Our results emphasize the importance of removing invasive species during early stages of invasion while their distribution is still relatively confined and negative effects on native species are limited.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11355-021-00474-7

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    Other Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11355-021-00474-7/fulltext.html

  • Life history of Juniperus sabina L. adapted to the sand shifting environment in the Mu Us Sandy Land, China: A review Reviewed

    Nobuhito Ohte, Naoko H. Miki, Naoko Matsuo, Lingli Yang, Muneto Hirobe, Norikazu Yamanaka, Yoshiaki Ishii, Ayumi Tanaka-Oda, Michiko Shimizu, Guosheng Zhang, Keiji Sakamoto, Linhe Wang, Ken Yoshikawa

    Landscape and Ecological Engineering   17   281 - 294   2021.7

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    We have reviewed publications on the physiological and ecological features of the growth and regeneration processes of Juniperus sabina L. which grows in semiarid sandy land in the Ordos plateau in northern China where desertification has progressed over time. J. sabina is a key native plant species used for ecological restoration in this region. The life history of J. sabina in this sandy land that has been revealed through this review includes several unique features: (1) both vegetative and seed propagations are observed, but seed propagation is not successful in the location where the mature J. sabina stands. Instead, seed propagation can occur at a different place with different landscapes from the mature stands. (2) Nurse plants play an important role in providing the microclimatic environment necessary for the growth of J. sabina seedlings and young plants. (3) During the horizontal and vertical growth processes of the J. sabina patch, the root system was affected by burial in shifting sand and consequently acquired greater access to the water supply in deeper soil horizons, which could support larger growth. These characteristics suggested that the regeneration by seed propagation and growth strategy of J. sabina in this region was strongly affected by sand movement and the landscape that is generated by sand movement.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11355-021-00453-y

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    Other Link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11355-021-00453-y/fulltext.html

  • Effects of large-scale forest fire followed by illegal logging on the regeneration of boreal forests in Mongolia Reviewed

    Keiji Sakamoto, Misaki Tomonari, Uyanga Ariya, Erika Nakagiri, Tetsuya K. Matsumoto, Yasuaki Akaji, Takashi Otoda, Muneto Hirobe, Baatarbileg Nachin

    Landscape and Ecological Engineering   17   267 - 279   2021.7

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Springer Science and Business Media LLC  

    DOI: 10.1007/s11355-021-00457-8

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  • Selective pollination by fungus gnats potentially functions as an alternative reproductive isolation among five Arisaema species Reviewed International journal

    Tetsuya K Matsumoto, Muneto Hirobe, Masahiro Sueyoshi, Yuko Miyazaki

    Annals of Botany   127 ( 5 )   633 - 644   2021.4

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Oxford University Press (OUP)  

    <title>Abstract</title>
    <sec>
    <title>Background and Aims</title>
    Interspecific difference in pollinators (pollinator isolation) is important for reproductive isolation in flowering plants. Species-specific pollination by fungus gnats has been discovered in several plant taxa, suggesting that they can contribute to reproductive isolation. Nevertheless, their contribution has not been studied in detail, partly because they are too small for field observations during flower visitation. To quantify their flower visitation, we used the genus Arisaema (Araceae) because the pitcher-like spathe of Arisaema can trap all floral visitors.


    </sec>
    <sec>
    <title>Methods</title>
    We evaluated floral visitor assemblage in an altitudinal gradient including five Arisaema species. We also examined interspecific differences in altitudinal distribution (geographic isolation) and flowering phenology (phenological isolation). To exclude the effect of interspecific differences in altitudinal distribution on floral visitor assemblage, we established ten experimental plots including the five Arisaema species in high- and low-altitude areas and collected floral visitors. We also collected floral visitors in three additional sites. Finally, we estimated the strength and contribution of these three reproductive barriers using a unified formula for reproductive isolation.


    </sec>
    <sec>
    <title>Key Results</title>
    Each Arisaema species selectively attracted different fungus gnats in the altitudinal gradient, experimental plots and additional sites. Altitudinal distribution and flowering phenology differed among the five Arisaema species, whereas the strength of geographic and phenological isolations were distinctly weaker than those in pollinator isolation. Nevertheless, the absolute contribution of pollinator isolation to total reproductive isolation was weaker than geographic and phenological isolations, because pollinator isolation functions after the two early-acting barriers in plant life history.


    </sec>
    <sec>
    <title>Conclusions</title>
    Our results suggest that selective pollination by fungus gnats potentially contributes to reproductive isolation. Since geographic and phenological isolations can be disrupted by habitat disturbance and interannual climate change, the strong and stable pollinator isolation might compensate for the weakened early-acting barriers as an alternative reproductive isolation among the five Arisaema species.


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    DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcaa204

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    Other Link: http://academic.oup.com/aob/article-pdf/127/5/633/37118519/mcaa204.pdf

  • Spatial distribution of mercury accumulation in the surface soil of Japanese forests Reviewed

    Takaya Chikamasa, Hideaki Shibata, Rieko Urakawa, Karibu Fukuzawa, Muneto Hirobe, Yoshiyuki Inagaki

    Journal of Forest Research   26 ( 2 )   161 - 167   2021.3

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Informa UK Limited  

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant that can affect human and ecosystem health. The transport and fate of Hg in the environment are dynamic and complex, but our understanding remains unclear for Japanese forest ecosystems. Here, we report the first country-wide survey of Hg concentrations in litter and surface mineral soil layers in 42 forest stands across Japan. The median concentrations of Hg in the litter layer and 0-10 cm of mineral soils were 99 (range: 56.7-297) and 145 (range: 22.8-294) mu g kg(-1), respectively, and tended to decrease down to 50 cm. There was a positive relationship between the Hg and total organic carbon concentrations in soil, suggesting that organic carbon strongly binds with Hg in soil. There was a significant positive correlation between the Hg and lead concentrations in the litter layer. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that the soil and litter properties as well as the atmospheric and geological Hg concentrations and some soil characteristics such as soil pH, organic matter properties and soil physical factors were effective explanatory variables of the country-wide spatial patterns of Hg concentrations in litter and mineral soil. In addition, we found the influence of atmospheric Hg is stronger in litter layer, whereas the influences of geological and soil factors are stronger in mineral soil. These results suggest that air pollution partly affects the spatial patterns of Hg concentrations in litter and soil of Japanese forests under the given geological and soil conditions at the country scale.

    DOI: 10.1080/13416979.2020.1865510

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  • Population structures and spatial patterns of two unpalatable Arisaema species (Araceae) with and without clonal reproduction in riparian forest intensively grazed by Sika deer Reviewed

    Matsumoto TK, Hirobe M, Akaji Y, Miyazaki Y

    Journal of Forestry Research   31   155 - 162   2020

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  • Pre-pollination barriers between two sympatric Arisaema species in northern Shikoku Island, Japan Reviewed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuya K., Miyazaki, Yuko, Sueyoshi, Masahiro, Senda, Yoshihiro, Yamada, Kazuhiro, Hirobe, Muneto

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY   2019.11

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY  

    Premise The genus Arisaema (Araceae) has rapidly diversified in Japan, and multiple species often coexist in the field. Although Japanese Arisaema species hybridize from artificial crossing, hybrid individuals are rare in mixed populations; suggesting the presence of effective pre-pollination barriers. We examined the following reproductive barriers between A. sikokianum and A. tosaense: habitat, phenology, and pollinator isolations. Methods Habitat isolation was examined by interspecific comparisons of microhabitat conditions at a mixed site and of altitude at the sampling site of herbarium specimens. Phenological isolation was evaluated by comparing seasonal transition in apparent spathe condition and frequency of insect visitation. Pollinator isolation was examined by comparing floral visitor assemblages between the two Arisaema species. To avoid overestimation of pollinator isolation due to seasonal changes in insect assemblages, we also compared visitor assemblages between natural and late-flowering A. sikokianum, where the latter was experimentally introduced and blooming with a natural A. tosaense population. Results Microhabitat conditions and sampling elevations of herbarium specimens overlapped between the two Arisaema species. At the population level, A. sikokianum and A. tosaense flowered for 39 and 52 days, respectively, with 13 days overlap. Insect visitation in A. sikokianum decreased before the seasonal overlap. Floral visitor assemblages differed between the two Arisaema species, while the difference between natural and late-flowering A. sikokianum was less distinct. Conclusions Phenological and pollinator isolation contribute to reproductive isolation between the two Arisaema species and should enable the two species to coexist in this area.

    DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1389

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  • Survival and recruitment of Sasa kurilensis culms in response to local light conditions in a cool temperate forest Reviewed

    Akaji Yasuaki, Fujiyoshi Kyohei, Wu Chongyang, Hattori Itsuka, Hirobe Muneto, Sakamoto Keiji

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   24 ( 6 )   365 - 370   2019.10

  • Environmental factors affecting community structure of Sasa kurilensis in the understory of a beech forest Reviewed

    呉 崇洋, 田中 凌太, 藤好 恭平, 服部 一華, 赤路 康朗, 廣部 宗, 坂本 圭児

    日本緑化工学会誌   45 ( 1 )   103 - 108   2019.8

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:日本緑化工学会  

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  • Stump sprout dynamics of Quercus serrata Thunb. and Q. acutissima Carruth. four years after cutting in an abandoned coppice forest in western Japan Reviewed

    Tai Tien Dinh, Kajikawa Chihiro, Akaji Yasuaki, Yamada Kazuhiro, Matsumoto Tetsuya K, Makimoto Takushi, Miki Naoko H, Hirobe Muneto, Sakamoto Keiji

    FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT   435   45 - 56   2019.3

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    Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.12.034

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  • A water acquisition strategy may regulate the biomass and distribution of winter forage species in cold Asian rangeland Reviewed

    Tanaka-Oda Ayumi, Endo Izuki, Ohte Nobuhito, Eer Deni, Yamanaka Norikazu, Hirobe Muneto, Nachinshonhor G. U, Koyama Asuka, Jambal Sergelenkhuu, Katsuyama Masanori, Nakamura Takashi, Matsuo Naoko, Jamsran Undarmaa, Okuro Toshiya, Yoshikawa Ken

    ECOSPHERE   9 ( 12 )   2018.12

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:WILEY  

    Aboveground biomass is often restricted by water availability; therefore, water acquisition strategies have important roles in determining biomass volume and distribution under arid conditions. In cold Asian rangelands, the large tussock grass Achnatherum splendens is the most important forage for maintaining livestock under severe winter conditions. However, A. splendens distribution is restricted to the middle of the slopes of ephemeral streams, making it difficult to manage winter foraging. To understand the mechanisms behind the specific distribution and maintenance of a large A. splendens biomass under arid conditions, we established four typical vegetative plots along a riverside slope with different A. splendens density levels and elevations: river bottom with no A. splendens, riverbank with a large A. splendens community, upper slope with an isolated A. splendens community, and flat plain with no A. splendens. We measured the soil pH and electric conductivity (EC) of the plots and investigated the vertical biomass and root distribution of A. splendens. We also investigated the water source for the A. splendens communities using isotope techniques. The soil pH was not different among plots, while the soil EC was significantly higher in the river bottom because of salt accumulation. However, low soil EC levels were found under the A. splendens communities. In the ground below the A. splendens communities, plant stems were buried deeply. The belowground biomass and buried stem depths decreased at the sites of the isolated A. splendens communities in the upper slope. The aboveground biomass of A. splendens increased as the stem burial depths and, therefore, the adventitious roots depths increased. The water source of A. splendens was estimated to be at a depth of more than 30 cm. Thus, A. splendens prefers a habitat with a low level of soil salinity and a high level of water availability, which may increase with the sand burial depth because of the increasing accessibility of a substantial water source in the deeper soil layer. Sand burial may affect the water acquisition strategy and maintenance of large biomasses of tussock grass species that act as important winter forage in cold Asian rangelands.

    DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.2511

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  • Sprouting capacity of Quercus serrata Thunb. and Quercus acutissima Carruth. after cutting canopy trees in an abandoned coppice forest Reviewed

    Tai Tien Dinh, Yasuaki Akaji, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Takumi Toribuchi, Takushi Makimoto, Muneto Hirobe, Keiji Sakamoto

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   23 ( 5 )   287 - 296   2018

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    Rejuvenation by sprouting is a possible solution to prevent abandoned coppice forests in Japan from outbreaks of oak wilt disease. Applying this approach requires examining the sprouting capacity of large-sized oak trees. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of stump size, sprout characteristics (emerging time and origin position), and environmental factors (slope, convexity, soil moisture, soil net nitrogen mineralization rate (Net-NMR) and canopy closure) on sprout regeneration of the two widely distributed oaks in Japan, Quercus serrata and Quercus acutissima, in the first growing season after cutting. In November 2013, a study plot (40x90m) was set, and canopy trees within the plot and edge areas were cut. We recorded sprout emergence, sprout origin position, sprout survival, and length from May to October 2014. Our data indicated that both species (ca. 60years old) have not yet lost their ability of sprouting. In Q. acutissima, the sprouting probability increased with light availability and was higher in concave area, and its number of living sprouts was positively related to stump diameter. In Q. serrata, the number of living sprouts increased with light availability. Sprouts emerged earlier and/or originated from the lower part of stump exhibited a higher survival probability. Emerging time substantially influenced sprout growth pattern and its effect followed a similar tendency in both species. Our results evidence that the ability of sprouting and the number of living sprouts might not be reduced in large-sized trees, and the increasing of light availability could promote sprout regeneration.

    DOI: 10.1080/13416979.2018.1498288

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  • Survival and growth of Fagus crenata seedlings in relation to biological and microtopographical factors in a cool temperate broadleaf forest Reviewed

    Yasuaki Akaji, Muneto Hirobe, Yuko Miyazaki, Takushi Makimoto, Shu Kinoshita, Itsuka Hattori, Keiji Sakamoto

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   22 ( 5 )   294 - 302   2017

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    The seedling stage is critical in the life cycle of trees, and performance is controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors, which are spatially heterogeneous. We investigated the relationships between the seedling survival or growth of Fagus crenata and seven potentially influencing factors (culm density of dwarf bamboo, slope angle, topographic convexity, distance from the nearest conspecific adult, and local density of F. crenata seedlings, and seedling size and age), under consideration of the changes in direction and strength of the microtopographic effects across space. In 2011, we identified all F. crenata seedlings (maximum stem length &lt;50cm) within a 90x30-m plot in a cool-temperate forest in western Japan and then recorded their survival and growth of stem length in 2012. The best model based on Akaike's information criterion indicated that the size, age, and distance had positive effects on the survival while slope and convexity had negative effects, and that the strength of the negative effect of convexity varied spatially even within our plot. Meanwhile, the size and culm density had positive and negative effects on the growth, respectively. These results suggest that F. crenata seedlings have more chance to survive at the site on a gentle slope with planar or relatively concave undulations, where the conspecific adults stood apart, and that the seedlings show higher growth rate at the sites without dense dwarf bamboo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spatially nonstationary effect of microtopography controls the spatial pattern of seedling survival.

    DOI: 10.1080/13416979.2017.1354749

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  • The relationship between seedling survival rates and their genetic relatedness to neighboring conspecific adults Reviewed

    Yasuaki Akaji, Yuko Miyazaki, Muneto Hirobe, Takushi Makimoto, Keiji Sakamoto

    PLANT ECOLOGY   217 ( 4 )   465 - 470   2016.4

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    Seedling genotype is one of the major factors affecting seedling survival when the rate of damage by natural enemies depends on a host genotype. However, to our knowledge, no previous study has examined the mortality of seedlings adjacent to conspecific adults, considering intraspecific variation in seedling genotypes. On the basis of the assumption that natural enemies adapt to adult trees having a unique genotype, we tested the hypothesis that seedling survival decreases when they are more closely genetically related to neighboring adults, by measuring the mortality rate of seedlings of Fagus crenata growing in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. We estimated the genetic relatedness of seedlings (2 and 6 years old) to the neighboring adult F. crenata using microsatellite analysis and measured seedling survival. We determined that there was a non-significant negative correlation between seedling survival and genetic relatedness in the 2-year-old seedling cohort, and a non-significant but positive correlation in the 6-year-old seedlings. Our results call for further studies on the potential relationship between seedling survival and genetic relatedness to neighboring adults.

    DOI: 10.1007/s11258-016-0591-z

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  • Temporal and spatial dynamics of an old-growth beech forest in western Japan Reviewed

    Uyanga Ariya, Ken-Ya Hamano, Takushi Makimoto, Shu Kinoshita, Yasuaki Akaji, Yuko Miyazaki, Muneto Hirobe, Keiji Sakamoto

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   21 ( 2 )   73 - 83   2016.4

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    Dendrochronological approaches enable us to understand forest stand dynamics by estimation of disturbance history and age structure. The present study was conducted in an old-growth beech forest in a forest reserve in western Japan. Increment cores were taken for tree ring analysis from all canopy trees in a 50 m x 130 m study plot. Radial growth release criteria were developed to identify significant growth releases in each tree ring series and to characterize the disturbance history of the study site. The age structure of the forest was indicative of continuous establishment by Fagus crenata and simultaneous establishment by Magnolia obovata. A variety of low-intensity disturbances were identified in each decade, especially after the 1900s, but the occurrence of high-intensity catastrophic disturbance was rare, and likely played an important role in maintaining species diversity in the existing forest canopy. The results also suggest that F. crenata regenerates gradually before and after both large- and small-scale disturbances, whereas M. obovata and Betula grossa regenerate only after large-scale catastrophic disturbances.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10310-015-0514-1

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  • Changes in aboveground and belowground properties during secondary natural succession of a cool-temperate forest in Japan Reviewed

    Hyodo, F., Haraguchi, T.F., Hirobe, M., Tateno, R.

    Journal of Forest Research   21 ( 4 )   170 - 177   2016

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    DOI: 10.1007/s10310-016-0526-5

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  • The spatial distributions of understory trees in relation to dwarf bamboo cover in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Japan Reviewed

    Muneto Hirobe, Sho Miyamoto, Keiji Sakamoto, Junji Kondo, Takashi Otoda, Yasuaki Akaji, Norikazu Yamanaka

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   20 ( 3 )   357 - 362   2015.6

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SPRINGER JAPAN KK  

    Dwarf bamboo is a major understory vegetation in Japanese forests, and is recognized to be an ecological filter for the seedlings of overstory tree species. However, the effects of dwarf bamboo cover on the entire understory tree community, including shrubs, have not been fully assessed. Using spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE), we analyzed the spatial distributions of, and the spatial associations between, Sasa palmata cover and understory trees (diameter at breast height &lt; 2 cm, height a parts per thousand yen50 cm) in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest dominated by Fagus crenata. In a 20 m x 240 m area, we found 49 total species, among 11,686 stems. Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. nana, plus Lindera umbellata and F. crenata stems accounted for about 50 % of the overall total. The SADIE analysis based on 5 m x 5 m quadrats demonstrated that most species, among the 20 tree species we examined, showed significantly aggregated distributions (P &lt; 0.05) and/or significant spatial dissociations (P &lt; 0.05) with S. palmata cover. However, for C. harringtonia var. nana, L. umbellata, Meliosma tenuis, and Ligustrum tschonoskii, their spatial distributions were independent, or significantly associated (P &lt; 0.05) with S. palmata cover. Our results indicates that dwarf bamboo acts as an ecological filter, not only for the seedlings of overstory tree species but also for other understory trees, in the cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10310-015-0480-7

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  • Effects of Juniperus sabina L. and soil surface environmental conditions on stand structure of Artemisia ordosica Krasch. on fixed sand dune in semiarid area, China Reviewed

    MATSUMOTO Tetsuya, MIKI H. Naoko, HIROBE Muneto, ZHANG GuoSheng, WANG LinHe, YOSHIKAWA Ken

    Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology   41 ( 1 )   56 - 61   2015

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:JAPANESE SOCIETY OF REVEGETATION TECHNOLOGY  

    We investigated the effect of soil surface environmental conditions on the stand structure of Artemisia ordosica Krasch., which is a deciduous semi shrub and one of the revegetation plant in semiarid area, China. The effect of Juniperus sabina L., which has prostrate life-form and often distributed with A. ordosica was also considered. Individual density, position, size, existence of fruits, and soil surface conditions were measured. The results suggested that both species exclude with each other and the A. ordosica community on the fixed sand dune was influenced by the competition to get the resources with J. sabina rather than the nutrient conditions of soil surface.

    DOI: 10.7211/jjsrt.41.56

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  • Reconstruction of establishment process in a secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest by tree ring analysis Reviewed

    USUDA Masumi, MAKIMOTO Takushi, AKAJI Yasuaki, HIROBE Muneto, SAKAMOTO Keiji

    Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology   41 ( 1 )   103 - 108   2015

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:JAPANESE SOCIETY OF REVEGETATION TECHNOLOGY  

    We estimated establishment process of the secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest, based on the establishment and growth processes of dominant tree species detected by tree ring analysis. In the period of coppicing, many trees frequently showed releases, which suggest many remaining individuals abruptly grew by the disturbance of coppicing. Around the beginning of the abandonment, it is likely that Quercus serrata and Prunus jamasakura were most frequently established. Ratios of individuals showing suppressed growth increased in the succession after the abandonment. On the other hand, releases discontinuously occurred, which suggests disturbances by fallen trees occurred in the process of succession.

    DOI: 10.7211/jjsrt.41.103

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  • Effects of livestock grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of net soil nitrogen mineralization in three types of Mongolian grasslands Reviewed

    Muneto Hirobe, Junji Kondo, Altangerel Enkhbaatar, Narantsetseg Amartuvshin, Noboru Fujita, Keiji Sakamoto, Ken Yoshikawa, Knut Kielland

    JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS   13 ( 7 )   1123 - 1132   2013.8

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:SPRINGER HEIDELBERG  

    Small-scale soil heterogeneity relates to productivity and biodiversity and is crucial to understand. Soil heterogeneity could be affected by vegetation structure, and large mammal grazers could modify it through herbivory and excretion. The objective is to clarify the effects of livestock grazing on the small-scale (similar to 3 m) soil heterogeneity in three types of Mongolian grasslands.
    We sampled soils from inside (ungrazed) and outside (grazed) exclosures in three vegetation types: forest-steppe, shrub-steppe, and desert-steppe. We measured laboratory rates of soil net nitrogen (N) mineralization and net nitrification and geostatistically analyzed heterogeneity.
    Average rates of net N mineralization and net nitrification were lower at shrub-steppe and desert-steppe and were decreased by grazing. Semivariograms showed vegetation-induced heterogeneity in ungrazed plots, except for net nitrification at forest-steppe. We found linear change with distance under dense and uniform vegetation at forest-steppe, 1.3 m patch under patchy vegetation at shrub-steppe, and linear change, but with much smaller semivariance, under sparse and poor vegetation at desert-steppe. At forest-steppe, grazing randomized the spatial patterns of net N mineralization and net nitrification. At shrub-steppe and desert-steppe, grazing greatly decreased the semivariances of net N mineralization and net nitrification as well as their averages, and the soil heterogeneity was virtually disappeared.
    Grazing in Mongolian grasslands homogenized the spatial patterns of net N mineralization and net nitrification, irrespective of their original spatial patterns determined by the differences in vegetation structure.

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  • Frequent fires may alter the future composition of the boreal forest in northern Mongolia Reviewed

    Takashi Otoda, Takahiro Doi, Keiji Sakamoto, Muneto Hirobe, Baatarbileg Nachin, Ken Yoshikawa

    Journal of Forest Research   18 ( 3 )   246 - 255   2013.6

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    To examine the effects of frequent fires on species composition of the boreal forest in northern Mongolia, we investigated regeneration patterns, including reproductive pathways, post-fire seed sources, and site preferences, of four common tree species (Betula platyphylla, Larix sibirica, Picea obovata, and Pinus sibirica). Regeneration patterns differed among B. platyphylla, L. sibirica, and the two evergreen conifers. B. platyphylla regenerated vigorously only after fire irrespective of the presence/absence of nearby seed sources, whereas post-fire regeneration of L. sibirica was more dependent on the presence of nearby seed sources. These two species did not regenerate in mature stands where mature trees of these species were growing. In contrast, no post-fire recruitment of P. obovata and P. sibirica was observed, whereas continuous recruitment of these species was observed in mature stands. The frequent fires that accompany illegal logging may result in larger burned areas and increase the risk of local extinctions of seed sources. The enlargement of burned areas is likely to favor post-fire recruitment of B. platyphylla. Seed dispersal limitation seems to have less effect on B. platyphylla than on the other species because of the wider seed dispersal range and vegetative reproduction capability of this species. Consequently, fires in the northern Mongolian boreal forest likely promote the relative dominance of B. platyphylla and threaten the existence of the evergreen conifers. © 2012 The Japanese Forest Society and Springer.

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  • Nitrate-use traits of understory plants as potential regulators of vegetation distribution on a slope in a Japanese cedar plantation Reviewed

    Lina Koyama, Muneto Hirobe, Keisuke Koba, Naoko Tokuchi

    PLANT AND SOIL   362 ( 1-2 )   119 - 134   2013.1

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    Plant physiological traits and their relation to soil N availability was investigated as regulators of the distribution of understory shrub species along a slope in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation in central Japan.At the study site, previous studies demonstrated that both net and gross soil nitrification rates are high on the lower slope and there are dramatic declines in different sections of the slope gradient. We examined the distributions of understory plant species and their nitrate (NO (3) (-) -N) use traits, and compared the results with the soil traits.Our results show that boundaries between different dominant understory species correspond to boundaries between different soil types. Leucosceptrum stellipilum occurs on soil with high net and gross nitrification rates. Hydrangea hirta is dominant on soil with high net and low gross nitrification rates. Pieris japonica occurs on soil with very low net and gross nitrification rates. Dominant understory species have species-specific physiological traits in their use of NO (3) (-) -N. Pieris japonica lacks the capacity to use NO (3) (-) -N as a N source, but other species do use NO (3) (-) -N. Lindera triloba, whose distribution is unrelated to soil NO (3) (-) -N availability, changes the extent to which it uses NO (3) (-) -N in response to soil NO (3) (-) -N availability.Our results indicate that differences in the physiological capabilities and adaptabilities of plant species in using NO (3) (-) -N as a N source regulate their distribution ranges. The identity of the major form of available soil N is therefore an environmental factor that influences plant distributions.

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  • 列状間伐4年後のヒノキ人工林における下層木本群落構造と立地環境ー斜面方位による比較ー Reviewed

    廣部 宗, 糸原まりな, 近藤順治, 音田高志, 赤路康朗, 牧本卓史, 坂本圭児

    森林応用研究   22 ( 1 )   7 - 14   2013

  • Influences of anthropogenic disturbances on the dynamics of white birch (Betula platyphylla) forests at the southern boundary of the Mongolian forest-steppe Reviewed

    Takashi Otoda, Keiji Sakamoto, Muneto Hirobe, Jamsran Undarmaa, Ken Yoshikawa

    Journal of Forest Research   18 ( 1 )   82 - 92   2013

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    We investigated the effects of disturbances on the dynamics of white birch-dominated forests at the southern boundary of the Mongolian forest-steppe. Dendroecological techniques were used to assess regeneration patterns and recent mortality trends in three stands with no evidence of recent anthropogenic disturbance (undisturbed) and four stands with evidence of cutting or fire (disturbed). In the undisturbed stands, only one distinct stem establishment was observed in the period between 1910 and 1950, and no establishment has been observed since then. In the disturbed stands, however, high establishment mainly by sprouting was observed in the period between 1960 and 1980. Percentages of standing dead stems were higher in the undisturbed stands than in the disturbed stands. Mean ages at death in the undisturbed stands were ≥70 years old. The high mortality was likely induced by the death of smaller stems due to light competition, whereas the mortality of larger stems was likely the result of tree senescence. In summary, the undisturbed stands seem to be in danger of decline due to a lack of regeneration during the last half of the previous century and recent high mortality rates of older stems, while the disturbed stands may be maintained for the next several decades by the younger cohort established between 1960 and 1980. White birch-dominated forests at the southern boundary of Mongolian forest-steppe have probably relied on relatively short disturbance intervals in the past because of the disturbance-dependent regeneration trait and relatively short longevity of Betula species. © 2011 The Japanese Forest Society and Springer.

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  • Microphysical environmental factors affecting the local distribution of dwarf bamboo (Sasa palmata) in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Japan Reviewed

    Yasuaki Akaji, Muneto Hirobe, Miho Harada, Takashi Otoda, Norikazu Yamanaka, Keiji Sakamoto

    ECOSCIENCE   20 ( 4 )   339 - 344   2013

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    Dwarf bamboos are major understory plants in subalpine and temperate forests of Japan. Several microphysical factors are known to influence their coarse-scale distribution, including slope angle, convexity, and proportion of gravel on the soil surface (hereafter gravel cover), but the effects of these factors on local variations in distribution are unclear. To elucidate these effects we examined relationships between local variations in Sasa palmata distribution and the 3 mentioned microphysical environmental factors within a 20- x 20-m plot divided into 0.5- x 0.5-m quadrats in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, applying intrinsic conditional autoregressive models at 3 spatial resolutions (0.5 x 0.5 m, 1.0 x 1.0 m, and 2.0 x 2.0 m). The models show that the 3 microphysical factors, known to affect the distribution of S. palmata at coarser scales, also affect its distribution at fine scales. Slope angle and gravel cover had negative effects, while convexity had positive effects on its abundance. However, the strength of their effects depended on the spatial resolution: convexity had the strongest effects at 2-m scale, while slope angle and gravel cover had stronger effects at the finer scales. These findings provide indications of scale-dependent effects of environmental factors that may contribute both to fundamental understanding of forest dynamics and to efforts to enhance the regeneration and conservation of target species.

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  • Colonization and community structure of root-associated microorganisms of Sabina vulgaris with soil depth in a semiarid desert ecosystem with shallow groundwater Reviewed

    Takeshi Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Usuki, Junichi Kikuchi, Muneto Hirobe, Naoko Miki, Kenji Fukuda, Guosheng Zhang, Linhe Wang, Ken Yoshikawa, Norikazu Yamanaka

    MYCORRHIZA   22 ( 6 )   419 - 428   2012.8

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    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been observed in deep soil layers in arid lands. However, change in AMF community structure with soil depth and vertical distributions of the other root-associated microorganisms are unclear. Here, we examined colonization by AMF and dark septate fungi (DSF), as well as the community structure of AMF and endophytic fungi (EF) and endophytic bacteria (EB) in association with soil depth in a semiarid desert with shallow groundwater. Roots of Sabina vulgaris and soils were collected from surface to groundwater level at 20-cm intervals. Soil chemistry (water content, total N, and available P) and colonization of AMF and DSF were measured. Community structures of AMF, EF, and EB were examined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. AMF colonization decreased with soil depth, although it was mostly higher than 50%. Number of AMF phylotypes decreased with soil depth, but more than five phylotypes were observed at depths up to 100 cm. Number of AMF phylotypes had a significant and positive relationship with soil moisture level within 0-15% of soil water content. DSF colonization was high but limited to soil surface. Number of phylotypes of EF and EB were diverse even in deep soil layers, and the community composition was associated with the colonization and community composition of AMF. This study indicates that AMF species richness in roots decreases but is maintained in deep soil layers in semiarid regions, and change in AMF colonization and community structure associates with community structure of the other root-associated microorganisms.

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  • Effects of Caragana microphylla patch and its canopy size on "islands of fertility" in a Mongolian grassland ecosystem Reviewed

    Junji Kondo, Muneto Hirobe, Yoshihiro Yamada, Jamsran Undarmaa, Keiji Sakamoto, Ken Yoshikawa

    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING   8 ( 1 )   1 - 8   2012.1

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    In arid and semiarid regions, variations in "islands of fertility" accompanied by discontinuous vegetation is frequently observed. However, the effects of vegetation patches on soil, including the influence of canopy size, are not fully understood, particularly under conditions of severe grazing. We examined the effects of patches of mound-forming shrub, Caragana microphylla, and the plant's canopy size on these islands of fertility in a heavily grazed Mongolian grassland. In 11 patches with various canopy sizes (32.5-180 cm in diameter), we compared the chemical properties of soils among three microsites: Mound, Below, and Around, which were inside, below, and outside of C. microphylla mounds, respectively. Total carbon (C) and most essential elements for the plants were more concentrated in Mound, but total nitrogen (N) and nonlimiting elements, such as exchangeable sodium (Na), did not significantly differ among microsites. Larger canopies more strongly affected the enrichment of total C and most essential elements, including total N, in Mound. These results suggest that C. microphylla patches substantially enrich total C and most essential elements and that the extent of enrichment was intensified with canopy size. However, under severe grazing, total N may be relatively more affected by the redistribution of resources through grazing, particularly when the canopy size is small.

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  • Effects of fire-derived charcoal on soil properties and seedling regeneration in a recently burned Larix gmelinii/Pinus sylvestris forest Reviewed

    Kobayashi Makoto, Muneto Hirobe, Thomas H. DeLuca, Semyon V. Bryanin, Valentina F. Procopchuk, Takayoshi Koike

    JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS   11 ( 8 )   1317 - 1322   2011.12

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    Purpose Fire is a primary form of disturbance in boreal ecosystems. Charcoal is an important by-product of forest fire and has been reported to have the potential to influence the plant community establishing after fire. To date, however, no study has effectively tested the relationship between charcoal and plant regeneration in the actual post-fire forests. To determine the contribution of charcoal to soil properties and plant regeneration after forest fires, we conducted in situ investigations concerning the relationship between charcoal and the plant-soil system.
    Materials and methods We conducted a field investigation in a recently burnt Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii)/Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest in the Russian Far East to investigate charcoal contents, pH, water contents, and nutrient availability in soil together with the regeneration of larch and pine seedlings.
    Results and discussion Positive correlations were found between charcoal contents and soil pH, water contents, and available P contents. Additionally, charcoal contents and the number of pine seedlings were positively correlated. There was, however, no significant relationship between charcoal content and extractable NH(4) (+) content or the number of larch seedlings. These results suggest that while charcoal influences are somewhat obscure in the field, charcoal significantly contributes to the amelioration of water and nutrient availability together with the success of regeneration of pine seedling.
    Conclusions Charcoal produced during fire events in Gmelin larch and Scots pine forests of eastern Russia has a modest influence on soil properties, but has the potential to improve regeneration in these fire-prone ecosystems.

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  • Effects of livestock grazing on the surface soil properties in Mongolian Steppe ecosystems along an aridity gradient Reviewed

    KONDO Junji, HIROBE Muneto, UUGANTSETSEG Khorloo, AMARTUVSHIN Narantsetseg, FUJITA Noboru, SAKAMOTO Keiji, YOSHIKAWA Ken

    The Japanese Association of The Revegetaion Technology   36 ( 3 )   406 - 415   2011

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    Grazing by large ungulates had both acceleration and deceleration effects on primary productivity and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystems. The directions of these effects can differ among ecosystems because climate is one of the most important determinant. In Mongolian steppe, the ecosystem type is changed with latitudinal gradient of the aridity from forest-steppe in the north to steppe in the middle to gobi-steppe in the south. Our objective was to clarify the effects of livestock grazing on the surface soil chemical properties in three types of Mongolian steppe ecosystems along an aridity gradient. The soil samples (0.10 cm) were taken from inside and outside of the exclosure fence to analyze soil chemical properties and to determine net nitrogen (N) transformation rates for laboratory incubation. The elements essentially for the plants were decreased and net N transformations were decelerated along aridity with increasing soil pH. The effects of grazing were not prominent for the soil nutrient pools. However, the grazing decelerated net N transformation rates, especially drier incubation condition, and increased soil pH. These results suggested that grazing by large ungulates decelerated nutrient cycling, which might caused by increased alkalinity in Mongolian steppe ecosystems.

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  • Seasonal changes of ecological characteristics on culms and leaves of Pleioblastus pubescens Nakai growing under different light conditions Reviewed

    ALA Tanhua, SAKAMOTO Keiji, MIKI Naoko, HIROBE Muneto, YOSHIKAWA Ken

    Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology   34 ( 3 )   524 - 533   2009

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    Pleioblastus pubescens Nakai occurs in different light conditions of secondary forests in the warmtemperate zone of Japan. Under different light conditions, we experimentally grew P. pubescence by planting the rhizomes, surveyed emergence, growth and survivorship of culms and leaves, and observed the morphology of leaves. Emerging duration of culms including tillering culms was longer, and the cumulative number of those culms was larger in the high light intensity than in the low light intensity. In the high light intensity, survival number of culms tended to be higher. The culm mortality in the relative light intensity of 1% was the highest In high light intensity, culm elongation rates were slower and the length after the complation elongation tended to be shorter than in the low light intensity. Therefore, it is suggested that P. pubescens has different regimes for invading and dominating the habitats in different light conditions. It is likely that P. pubescence increases the density with short culms in the high light intensity, on the other hand, it increases the length of culms with the low density in the low light intensit In foliage, longevity of leaves in high light intensity is shorter than that in the low light intensity. It was suggested that the foliage in the high light intensity is maintained by longer duration of culm and leaf emergence, and that in low light intensity is maintained by longer leaf longevity. In addition, leaves were smaller and thicker in light conditions.

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  • 異なる光条件で生育させたケネザサ(Pleioblastus pubescens Nakai)個葉の光合成特性 Reviewed

    阿拉担花, 坂本圭児, 三木直子, 廣部 宗, 吉川 賢

    日本緑化工学会誌   34   636 - 640   2009

  • Environmental factors controlling leaf emergence in Caragana microphylla, a deciduous shrub of the Mongolian steppe Reviewed

    Yamada, Y, Yamaguchi, Y, ndarmaa, J, Hirobe, M, Yoshikawa, K

    Journal of Arid Land Studies   19 ( 1 )   137 - 140   2009

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  • 異なる光条件で生育させたケネザサ(Pleioblastus pubescens Nakai)個葉の光ストレスに対する生理生態的反応 Reviewed

    阿拉坦花, 石井義朗, 坂本圭児, 三木直子, 廣部 宗, 吉川 賢

    日本緑化工学会誌   35   51 - 56   2009

  • RESPONSE OF WATER-USE PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SABINA VULGARIS ANT. IN DIFFERENT WATER CONDITIONS Reviewed

    YANG Lingli, MIKI Naoko, HARADA Naoki, HIROBE Muneto, SAKAMOTO Keiji, YOSHIKAWA Ken

    Journal of Environmental Science for Sustainable Society   2 ( 2 )   27 - 34   2008

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    &nbsp;&nbsp;We compared effects of different growing water potential conditions on physiological and morphological water&ndash;use properties of Sabina vulgaris Ant., which is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed in arid and semi-arid environments of the Mu Us Sandy Land, China. Measurements were taken of cuttings grown for eight years under -0.02 MPa (control), -0.10 MPa (moderate water stress), and -0.34 MPa (severe water stress) water potential conditions. The transpiration rate (Tr) under moderate stress was significantly lower than that under severe stress and control water conditions (49% and 45% lower, respectively, than severe stress and the control on average). The leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity (LSC) in shrubs growing under moderate water stress was also significantly lower than for those under the severe water potential condition. In contrast, S. vulgaris growing under severe water stress had less leaf biomass than under moderate stress or control conditions. These results suggest that S. vulgaris growing under moderate water stress tends to show a reduced transpiration rate derived from its low LSC; therefore it avoids water loss in response to chronic water stress, while plants growing under severe water stress tends to reduce water loss through decreased leaf biomass. These results suggest that S. vulgaris has a high capacity for acclimation to different water potential conditions through physiological and morphological flexibility.

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  • Individual-based measurement and analysis of root system development: case studies for Larix gmelinii trees growing on the permafrost region in Siberia Reviewed

    Takuya Kajimoto, Akira Osawa, Yojiro Matsuura, Anatoly P. Abaimov, Olga A. Zyryanova, Kazuma Kondo, Naoko Tokuchi, Muneto Hirobe

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   12 ( 2 )   103 - 112   2007.4

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    We present results of individual-based root system measurement and analysis applied for Larix gmelinii trees growing on the continuous permafrost region of central Siberia. The data of root excavation taken from the three stands were used for the analyses; young (26 years old), mature (105 years old), and uneven-aged over-mature stand (220 years old). In this article, we highlight two topics: (1) factors affecting spatio-temporal pattern of root system development, and (2) interactions between aboveground (i.e., crown) and belowground (i.e., root) competition. For the first topic, the detailed observation of lateral roots was applied to one sample tree of the overmature stand. The tree constructed a superficial (&lt; 30 cm in depth) and rather asymmetric root system, and each lateral root expanded mainly into elevated mounds rather than depressed troughs. This indicated that spatial development of an individual root system was largely affected by microtopography (i.e., earth hummocks). For these lateral roots, elongation growth curves were reconstructed using annual-ring data, and annual growth rates and patterns were compared among them. The comparison suggested that temporal root system development is associated with differences in carbon allocation among the lateral roots. For the second topic, we examined relationships between individual crown projection area (CA) and horizontal rooting area (RA) for the sample trees of each stand. RA was almost equal to CA in the young stand, while RA was much larger (three or four times) than CA in the mature and overmature stands. Two measures of stand-level space occupation, crown area index (aboveground: CAI; sum of CAs per unit land area) and rooting area index (belowground: RAI; sum of RAs), were estimated in each stand. The estimates of RA1 (1.3-1.8 m(2) m(-2)) exceeded unity in all stands. In contrast, CAI exceeded unity (1.3 m(2) m(-2)) only in the young stand, and was much smaller (&lt; 0.3 m(2) m(-2)) in the two older stands. These between-stand differences in RAI-CAI relationships suggest that intertree competition for both aboveground and belowground spaces occurred in the young stand, but only belowground competition still occurred in the two older stands. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that competition below the ground may become predominant as a stand ages in L. gmelinii forests. Methodological limitations of our analysis are also discussed, especially for the analysis using the two indices of space occupation (CAI, RAI).

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  • Comparison of soil N dynamics between dry dipterocarp forest and dry evergreen forest in Northeastern Thailand Reviewed

    TOKUCHI Naoko, HIROBE Muneto, NAKANISHI Asami, WACHIRINEAT Chongrak, TAKEDA Hiroshi

    Tropics   16 323-336 ( 4 )   323 - 336   2007

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    We conducted a comparative study of nitrogen (N) dynamics in soil by examining a dry dipterocarp forest (DDF) and a dry evergreen forest (DEF), under similar climatic conditions, in northeastern Thailand. The soil N dynamics were described by measuring seasonal N mineralization and nitrification rates, soil microbial biomass, and the size of inorganic N pools and extractable organic N and C pools. We estimated the fluxes and production of inorganic N in soil using the ion exchange resin core and buried bag methods. Carbon and N accumulations were higher in the DEF than in DDF; DEF had likely been protected from fire for a longer time than DDF. We also found temporal and vertical differences in soil N dynamics between DDF and DEF. The greatest inorganic N flux in the soil occurred at the onset of the wet season in DDF, whereas inorganic N was produced throughout the wet season in DEF. N uptake occurred in the uppermost soil horizon in DDF, whereas N uptake in DEF occurred in the deeper soil horizon. The mean residence time of inorganic N was greater in DEF than in DDF. These results suggest that N cycles were faster in DDF than in DEF. During long-term incubation experiments, the dominant inorganic N form changed from NH4+ to NO3-, coinciding with declining extractable organic C (EOC) concentrations at both sites. Shortages of EOC occurred earlier in DDF than in DEF. This finding indicates that EOC may be a useful index of C availability for soil N dynamics.

    DOI: 10.3759/tropics.16.323

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  • Spatial pattern of bamboo culms in an abandoned Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis stand(<Special Issue>THE 38TH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH MEETING) Reviewed

    Saroinsong Fabiola Baby, Sakamoto Keiji, Hirobe Muneto, Miki Naoko, Yoshikawa Ken

    Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology   33: 65-70 ( 1 )   65 - 70   2007

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    Our interests are in detecting the spatial pattern of Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis culms within growth stages -sprouts, current-year culms, and 5-year-old culms- and discussing the changes among them. The analysis used Ripley's univariate L(t) function. Change in the spatial pattern among growth stages was not observed in the intermediate and edge parts of bamboo forest where culms were less aggregated from early stage. In the interior, sprouts and current-year culms had clumped distribution at almost all distances in years with high annual culm production, Spatial pattern changes were observed from a clumped distribution of current-year culms into a less aggregated distribution of 5-year-old culms. We infer that the density is a determinant in forming the spatial pattern of culm stage of P. nigra v. henonis through competition in the stand with high density culms.

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  • Spatial and temporal patterns of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) of surface mineral soil in a cool temperate forest ecosystem Reviewed

    T Hishi, M Hirobe, R Tateno, H Takeda

    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY   36 ( 11 )   1731 - 1737   2004.11

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    Water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) drives the C and N cycles in forest ecosystems via microbial activity. However, few studies have considered both then spatial and temporal patterns of WEOC in forest soils. We investigated the spatial and temporal variation in WEOC along a topographic sequence in a cool temperate deciduous forest. The concentrations of WEOC, carbohydrates, total phenols, and other organics were 126 +/- 51, 40 +/- 15, 1.5 +/- 0.5 and 85 +/- 43 mg C kg dry soil(-1), respectively. Carbohydrates and phenols accounted for 33 +/- 11 and 1.5 +/- 1.0% of WEOC, respectively. The effect of season on the WEOC concentration was stronger than that of slope position the growing season, although most of the soil properties varied markedly with slope position. The concentration of carbohydrates in WEOC showed similar seasonal patterns across slope positions. The carbohydrate concentration peaked in May and August. The results suggest that carbohydrates are controlled by the recent production of C, rather than by organic C that has accumulated in soil. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • Leaf-litter decomposition of 15 tree species in a lowland tropical rain forest in Sarawak: decomposition rates and initial litter chemistry Reviewed

    Muneto Hirobe, John Sabang, Balram K. Bhatta, Hiroshi Takeda

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   9 ( 4 )   341 - 346   2004.11

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    In a lowland tropical rain forest in Sarawak, leaf-litter decomposition and the initial litter chemistry of 15 tree species were studied. During 13 months of field experiment, weight loss of litter samples was between 44% and 91%, and calculated decomposition rate constants (k) ranged from 0.38 to 2.36 year(-1). The initial litter chemistry also varied widely (coefficients of variation: 19%-74%) and showed low N and P concentrations and high acid-insoluble residue (AIS) concentration. For nutrient-related litter chemistry, correlations with the decomposition rate were significant only for P concentration, C/P ratio, and AIS/P ratio (r(s) = 0.59, -0.62, and -0.68, n = 15, P &lt; 0.05, respectively). For organic constituents, correlations were significant for concentrations of AIS and total carbohydrates, and AIS/acid-soluble carbohydrate ratio (r(s) = -0.81, 0.51, and -0.76, n = 15, P &lt; 0.05, respectively). These results suggested that the relatively slow mean rate of decomposition (k = 1.10) was presumably due to the low litter quality (low P concentration and high AIS concentration), and that P might influence the decomposition rate; but organic constituents, especially the concentration of AIS, were more important components of initial litter chemistry than nutrient concentrations.

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  • Leaf-litter decomposition of 15 tree species in a lowland tropical rain forest in Sarawak: dynamics of carbon, nutrients, and organic constituents Reviewed

    Muneto Hirobe, John Sabang, Balram K. Bhatta, Hiroshi Takeda

    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH   9 ( 4 )   347 - 354   2004.11

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    The effects of tree species on the dynamics of nutrient transformations during leaf-litter decomposition are not well understood in tropical rain forests. To examine differences in the dynamics of C, nutrients, and organic constituents during decomposition among tree species, the leaf-litter decomposition of 15 trees was assessed using a litter-bag method in a lowland tropical rain forest in Sarawak. The dynamics of C was parallel to that of weight loss. The dynamics of nutrients were grouped into three patterns. The dynamics of K was characterized by a high leaching loss in the initial stages, and that of Ca and Mg generally showed a gradual decrease over the course of decomposition. The dynamics of N and P showed highly different patterns with the weight loss, and was characterized by relatively higher remaining mass at the end of the experiment. The variations or exceptions of nutrient dynamics among tree species were considered to be related to the initial concentration of each nutrient. For the dynamics of organic constituents, water-soluble carbohydrates disappeared quickly at the initial stages, and acid-soluble carbohydrates were the second fastest decomposing fraction; the decomposition of acid-insoluble residue (AIS) was the slowest. The release of limiting nutrients (N and P) generally followed the disappearance of AIS, but was independent of the disappearance of AIS when the initial concentrations of these nutrients were very low.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10310-004-0088-9

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  • Fine root mass in relation to soil N supply in a cool temperate forest Reviewed

    R Fujimaki, R Tateno, M Hirobe, N Tokuchi, H Takeda

    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH   19 ( 5 )   559 - 562   2004.9

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    Soil inorganic nitrogen supply and fine root mass in the top layers of mineral soil (0-5 and 5-10 cm) were investigated at upper and lower sites of a cool temperate forest where Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula dominate. At both sites, soil inorganic nitrogen supply was greatest in the 0-5 cm layer. The predominant forms of soil inorganic nitrogen supply were NH(4) (+)-N at the upper site and NO(3)(-)-N at the lower site. Fine roots were concentrated in the 0-5 cm layer at the upper site, but not at the lower site. The form of supplied soil inorganic nitrogen supply can be important in determining the vertical distribution of fine roots.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1703.2004.00669.x

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  • Natural N-15 abundance of plants and soil N in a temperate coniferous forest Reviewed

    K Koba, M Hirobe, L Koyama, A Kohzu, N Tokuchi, KJ Nadelhoffer, E Wada, H Takeda

    ECOSYSTEMS   6 ( 5 )   457 - 469   2003.8

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    Measurement of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta(15)N) of plants and soil nitrogen might allow the characteristics of N transformation in an ecosystem to be detected. We tested the measurement of delta(15)N for its ability to provide a picture of N dynamics at the ecosystem level by doing a simple comparison of delta(15)N between soil N pools and plants, and by using an existing model. delta(15)N of plants and soil N was measured together with foliar nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and the foliar NO3- pool at two sites with different nitrification rates in a temperature forest in Japan. delta(15)N of plants was similar to that of soil NO3- in the high-nitrification site. Because of high foliar NRA and the large foliar NO3- pool at this site, we concluded that plant delta(15) N indicated a great reliance of plants on soil NO3- there. However, many delta(15)N of soil N overlapped each other at the other site, and delta(15)N could not provide definitive evidence of the N source. The existing model was verified by measured delta(15) N of soil inorganic N and it explained the variations of plant delta(15)N between the two sites in the context of relative importance of nitrification, but more information about isotopic fractionations during plant N uptake is required for quantitative discussions about the plant N source. The model applied here can provide a basis to compare delta(15) N signatures from different ecosystems and to understand N dynamics.

    DOI: 10.1007/s10021-002-0132-6

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  • Fire history influences on the spatial heterogeneity of soil nitrogen transformations in three adjacent stands in a dry tropical forest in Thailand Reviewed

    M Hirobe, N Tokuchi, C Wachrinrat, H Takeda

    PLANT AND SOIL   249 ( 2 )   309 - 318   2003.2

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    Spatial patterns of soil nitrogen (N) transformations were examined using geostatistical analysis in three adjacent stands with different fire history (0, 10 and 35 years since the latest fire, respectively) in a dry tropical forest in Thailand. A larger pool of total inorganic N and a faster rate of N mineralization were recorded in the stand with longer fire prevention. At the spatial scale analyzed, the proportion of spatially dependent variance to the total variance of N mineralization and nitrification increased from 0.39 to 0.73, and from 0.40 to 0.77, respectively, with the time since the latest fire. The spatial autocorrelation ranges of N mineralization and nitrification decreased from greater than or equal to9.0 to 3.28m, and greater than or equal to9.0 to 2.77 m, respectively, with the time since the latest fire. These results suggested that fire history affected not only the level of available soil N, but also the spatial heterogeneity of soil N transformations, presumably due to the difference in plant influences on soil.

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1022804326662

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  • Dynamics of the internal soil nitrogen cycles under moder and mull forest floor types on a slope in a Cryptomeria japonica D. Don plantation Reviewed

    M Hirobe, K Koba, N Tokuchi

    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH   18 ( 1 )   53 - 64   2003.1

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    To examine the influence of microbial carbon (C) availability on the internal soil nitrogen (N) cycles under moder and mull forest floor types within the same slope sequence, surface mineral soils (0-5 cm depth) taken at upper (moder-type forest floor) and lower (mull-type forest floor) positions on a slope in a Cryptomeria japonica D. Don plantation were incubated for 300 days. During the incubation, changes in net and gross N transformations, the organic C and N pools, and microbial respiration were monitored. Despite relatively small differences in net N mineralization in both soils, very rapid rates of gross N transformations were found in mull soil during the initial 15 days of the experiment. A rapid net nitrification occurred after days 150 and 100 in moder and mull soils, respectively, presumably because of decreased microbial C availability. However, a rapid net nitrification also occurred in the mull soil during the initial 15 days when microbial C availability was high, and gross nitrification was detected in both soils, except at day 0 in the moder soil. Changes in gross N transformations and in organic C and N pools over the experiment suggested that the start of rapid net nitrification might be influenced not only by microbial C availability, but also by the microbial availability of N relative to C.

    DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1703.2003.00532.x

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  • 森林生態系内における窒素循環の空間的異質性 Reviewed

    廣部 宗

    環境科学会誌   第16巻3号,227-232   2003

  • Plant species effect on the spatial patterns of soil properties in the Mu-us desert ecosystem, Inner Mongolia, China Reviewed

    M Hirobe, N Ohte, N Karasawa, GS Zhang, LH Wang, K Yoshikawa

    PLANT AND SOIL   234 ( 2 )   195 - 205   2001.7

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    Although Artemisia ordosica Krasch. and Sabina vulgaris Ant. are the dominant shrub species in the Mu-us desert ecosystem, they differ in their botanical traits. We investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties using geostatistical analysis to examine the effect of plant species on these spatial patterns. Comparison among three microsite types (under A. ordosica, under S. vulgaris, and the opening between vegetation) showed that A. ordosica generally had less effect than S. vulgaris on local soil properties. The long life-span, prostrate life-form, and evergreen leaf-habit of S. vulgaris may lead to a higher accumulation of organic and fine materials under S. vulgaris. The range of spatial autocorrelation found in the mass of organic matter on the soil surface was smaller than that of the coverage of S. vulgaris (11.5 m) which corresponded to the canopy patch size of this species, and was longer than the canopy patch size of A. ordosica. The ranges of total C and N, and pH (11.7-15.6 m) were similar to that of S. vulgaris. The range of available P (106.3 m) was comparable to that of the coverage of A. ordosica (86.2 m) considered to be the scale of the distribution of this species. The ranges of silt+clay and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg (31.0-46.7 m) were not related to plant presence, and were similar to that of topography (43.1 m).

    DOI: 10.1023/A:1017943030924

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  • Spatial and vertical differences in in-situ soil nitrogen availability along a slope in a conifer plantation forest Reviewed

    Hirobe, M, Tokuchi, N, Iwatsubo, G

    Applied Forest Science   10 ( 2 )   19 - 25   2001

  • The potential of NO3--N utilization by a woody shrub species Lindera triloba Reviewed

    Koyama, L, Tokuchi, N, Hirobe, M, Koba, K

    The Scientific World   514 - 519   2001

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  • Topographical Differences in Soil N Transformation Using ^<15>N Dilution Method along a Slope in a Conifer Plantation Forest in Japan : Reviewed

    Tokuchi Naoko, Hirobe Muneto, Koba Keisuke

    Journal of forest research   5 ( 1 )   13 - 19   2000

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    Soil N transformation was investigated using ^<15>N dilution method along a slope on a conifer plantation forest. Although there was no significant difference in the net N mineralization rates by laboratory incubation, net nitrification rates increased downslope. Gross N transformation by ^<15>N dilution method showed a distinct difference not only on the rates, but also on the main process between the lower and the upper of the slope. Half of minelarized N was immobilized and the other half was left in NH_4^+ pool at the upper part of the slope, while all of mineralized N was used for immobilization or nitrification and NH_4^+ pool decreased at the lower of the slope. Soil N transformations were classified into two groups : one was shown below 773 m and the other was shown above 782 m. The incubation with nitrification inhibitor showed that nitrification was mainly conducted by autotrophs irrespective of the position of the slope. Microbial biomass and microbial C/N were similar among the sites. However, the gross mineralization rate was higher below 773 m than above 782 m under similar respiration rates. This suggests that the substrate quality may be one of the controlling factors for soil N transformation. Extractable organic C/N was similar to microbial C/N at the lower of the slope. It indicated that the substrate was more decomposable below 773 m. It is considered that soil N transformation is affected by topographical gradient of moisture and nutrient which makes plant growth and decomposition rate different.

    DOI: 10.1007/BF02762758

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    Other Link: https://projects.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=191901

  • Spatial variability of soil nitrogen transformation patterns along a forest slope in a Cryptomeria japonica D. Don plantation Reviewed

    M. Hirobe, N. Tokuchi, G. Iwatsubo

    European Journal of Soil Biology   34 ( 3 )   123 - 131   1999

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  • Gross soil N transformations in a coniferous forest in Japan Reviewed

    Tokuchi N, Hirobe M, Koba K

    Environmental forest science. Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 8 Conference, Kyoto University, Japan, 19-23 October 1998.   239 - 244   1998

  • Topographic differences in soil N transformation patterns along a forest slope Reviewed

    M Hirobe, N Tokuchi, G Iwatsubo

    Environmental forest science. Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 8 Conference, Kyoto University, Japan, 19-23 October 1998.   54   245 - 251   1998

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    The soil N transformation pattern depended on the topographic positions along a forest slope. Nitrate was the dominant inorganic N in the net mineralized N during incubation of the soil of the lower of the slope, and ammonium was the dominant in the soil of the upper of the slope. The middle of the slope was the boundary of the lower and upper soils. In the boundary, soil N transformation patterns seemed to depend on the local environmental conditions. Thus, the relationships between soil N transformation and soil properties were examined by correlation analysis. Net N mineralization rate highly correlated with total C, C/N ratio and pH, while net nitrification highly correlated with water content and 2M KCl extractable organic C and N.

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Books

  • 森林生態学

    石井, 弘明, 徳地, 直子, 榎木, 勉, 名波, 哲, 廣部, 宗

    朝倉書店  2019.4  ( ISBN:9784254470543

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    Total pages:vi, 173p, 図版2枚   Language:Japanese

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  • モンゴル 草原生態系ネットワークの崩壊と再生

    近藤順治・廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  第3章コラム2 家畜放牧と草原の窒素循環)

    京都大学学術出版会  2013 

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  • モンゴル 草原生態系ネットワークの崩壊と再生

    音田高志・廣部 宗・幸田良介( Role: Contributor ,  第4章2 森林の動態に対する人為攪乱の影響)

    京都大学学術出版会  2013 

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  • 森林のバランス

    廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  3-27 ストイキオメトリー)

    東海大学出版会  2012 

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  • The Mongolian Ecosystem Network: Environmental Issues Under Climate and Social Changes

    Hirobe, M., Kondo, J.( Role: Contributor ,  Part II. 9. Effects of climate and grazing on surface soil in grassland)

    Springer  2012 

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  • Pastoralism and Ecosystem Network in Mongolia

    Kondo, J., Hirobe, M., Uugantsetseg, K., Altangerel, E., Fujita, N., Sakamoto, K., Yoshikawa, K.( Role: Contributor ,  1.4. Interactive effects of climate aridity and livestock grazing on the surface soil properties, and its spatial heterogeneity in Mongolian grassland ecosystems.)

    Research Institute for Humanity and Nature  2012 

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  • Pastoralism and Ecosystem Network in Mongolia

    Otoda, T, Koda, R, Hirobe, M, Amartuvshin, N, Baatarbileg, N, Fujita, N, Sakamoto, K, Yoshikawa, K( Role: Contributor ,  1.13. Effects of human-caused disturbances o tree regeneration in Mongolian forests)

    Research Institute for Humanity and Nature  2012 

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  • Permafrost Ecosystems. Siberian Larch Forests

    Matsuura, Y., Hirobe, M.( Role: Contributor ,  Chapter 8 Soil Carbon and Nitrogen, and Characteristics of Soil Active Layer in Siberian Permafrost Region)

    Springer  2010 

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  • Permafrost Ecosystems. Siberian Larch Forests

    Tokuchi, N, Hirobe, M, Kondo, K, Hobara, S, Fukushima, K, Matsuura, Y( Role: Contributor ,  Chapter 12 Soil nitrogen dynamics in larch ecosystem)

    Springer  2010 

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  • 基礎演習 産業生物科学

    廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  一次生産、有機物の分解)

    岡山大学出版会  2009 

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  • 光合成研究法(低温科学67)

    三木直子・廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  2章3.3 重量法による蒸散特性の評価)

    北海道大学低温科学研究所  2009 

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  • 黒水城人文と環境研究

    吉川 賢・門田有佳子・石井義朗・三木直子・廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  胡楊(Populus euphratica)の生理的、生態的特性)

    中国人民大学出版社  2007 

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  • 陸域生態系の科学 地球環境と生態系

    徳地直子・廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  第3章2 森林生態系をめぐる物質循環)

    共立出版株式会社  2006 

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  • 乾燥地の自然と緑化

    廣部 宗( Role: Contributor ,  第1章3 乾燥地の土壌)

    共立出版株式会社  2004 

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Presentations

  • 発芽後の環境がブナ当年生実生の定着に与える影響

    多々納琴音, 松本哲也, Vu Khanh Linh, 廣部 宗, 坂本圭児, 宮﨑祐子

    日本生態学会中国四国地区会第66回大会 

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    Event date: 2023.5.13 - 2023.5.14

    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

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  • 森林斜面に沿った土壌特性の違いにシカがおよぼす影響

    廣部 宗, 清村康太, 松本哲也, 横部智浩, 兵藤不二夫, 舘野隆之輔

    第134日本森林学会大会(鳥取・オンライン) 

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    Event date: 2023.3.25 - 2023.3.27

    Presentation type:Poster presentation  

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  • 岡山県産広義マムシグサを対象とした訪花キノコバエ相に基づく隠蔽種の探索

    松本哲也, 平松勅悦, 柿嶋 聡, 宮﨑祐子, 末吉昌宏, 廣部 宗

    日本植物分類学会第22回大会(千葉) 

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    Event date: 2023.3.1 - 2023.3.5

    Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

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  • トチノキ個体における雄性器官と雌性器官への繁殖投資効率

    川口英之, 荒木眞岳, 飛田博順, 廣部 宗, 榎木 勉, 名波 哲, 舘野隆之輔, 金子有子, 井鷺裕司

    第133日本森林学会大会 

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    Event date: 2022.3.27 - 2022.3.29

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  • 西日本のブナ天然林における11年間のブナ実生個体群動態

    畑 俊輔, 赤路康朗, 山田和弘, 中山陽介, 石井弘明, 東 若菜, 野口結子, 牧本卓史, 坂本圭児, 廣部 宗, 松本哲也, 宮崎祐子

    日本生態学会第69回大会 

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    Event date: 2022.3.14 - 2022.3.19

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  • オオハンゲ (サトイモ科) の繁殖様式

    尾上元哉, 松本哲也, 廣部 宗, 宮﨑祐子

    日本生態学会第68回大会(岡山・オンライン)  2021.3 

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  • 76年生落葉広葉樹林における伐採後 3 年間の 実生による更新

    前田紹吾, 浅野 仁, 向井美緒, 三木直子, 廣部 宗, 坂本圭児

    第132日本森林学会大会(府中・オンライン)  2021.3 

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  • ケツユクサの可塑的な性決定メカニズム:花序内の資源動態に着目して

    佐藤弘大, 宮崎祐子, 勝原光希, 邑上夏菜, 廣部 宗, 兵藤不二夫, 丑丸 敦

    日本生態学会第68回大会(岡山・オンライン)  2021.3 

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  • 岡山県北部に分布する広義マムシグサを対象とした隠蔽種の探索

    平松勅悦, 松本哲也, 柿嶋 聡, 宮﨑祐子, 末吉昌宏, 廣部 宗

    日本植物分類学会第20回大会 (オンライン)  2021.3 

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  • 岡山県北部に分布する広義マムシグサにおける訪花昆虫相と形態に基づく隠蔽種の探索

    平松勅悦, 松本哲也, 末吉昌宏, 宮﨑祐子, 廣部 宗

    第52回種生物シンポジウム(オンライン)  2020.12 

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  • テンナンショウ属5種に訪花するキノコバエ類の種特異性と生殖隔離としての潜在的機能

    松本哲也, 廣部 宗, 末吉昌宏, 宮﨑祐子

    第52回種生物シンポジウム(オンライン)  2020.12 

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  • ケツユクサにおける花の可塑的な性決定と花序内資源量の関係

    佐藤弘大, 宮崎祐子, 勝原光希, 邑上夏菜, 廣部 宗, 兵藤不二夫, 丑丸 敦

    日本生態学会第67回大会(名古屋)  2020.3 

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  • 76年生落葉広葉樹林における伐採後2年間の萌芽枝の発生消長

    三木直子, 浅野 仁, 前田紹吾, 廣部 宗, 坂本圭児

    第131日本森林学会大会(名古屋)  2020.3 

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  • 76年生落葉広葉樹林における伐採後の実生更新

    前田紹吾, 浅野 仁, 三木直子, 廣部 宗, 坂本圭児

    第131日本森林学会大会(名古屋)  2020.3 

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  • 分布域が重複するハリママムシグサとムロウテンナンショウの受粉前生殖隔離

    松本哲也, 小林禧樹, 末吉昌宏, 宮﨑祐子, 廣部 宗

    日本生態学会第67回大会(名古屋)  2020.3 

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  • 日本の森林土壌における窒素保持能の違い

    安達亮太, 兵藤不二夫, 黒岩 恵, 大西雄二, 福島慶太郎, 木庭啓介, 廣部 宗

    日本生態学会第67回大会(名古屋)  2020.3 

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  • 中国半乾燥地における匍匐性樹木Juniperus sabina L.の被覆内外での植物群落構造の比較

    秦 龍, 山林英果, 松本哲也, 張 国盛, 廣部 宗, 三木直子

    第30回日本砂漠学会学術大会 (東京)  2019.5 

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  • 局所的環境条件がブナ若齢実生の生残と成長に 及ぼす影響

    山田和弘, 赤路康朗, 宮崎祐子, 安達亮太, 谷口武士, 兵藤不二夫, 坂本圭児, 廣部 宗

    日本生態学会第66回大会(神戸)  2019.3 

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  • 岡山県北部に分布するテンナンショウ 5 種の受粉 前生殖隔離

    松本哲也, 廣部 宗, 末吉昌宏, 宮崎祐子

    日本生態学会第66回大会(神戸)  2019.3 

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  • 雄性両全性同株ケツユクサの花の性は資源依存的 に決まるのか?

    佐藤弘大, 宮崎祐子, 勝原光希, 邑上夏菜, 廣部 宗, 兵藤不二夫, 丑丸敦史

    日本生態学会第66回大会(神戸)  2019.3 

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  • 粒径分画を用いた森林表層土壌に含まれる有機態 窒素の分解性評価

    廣部 宗, 冨田悟司, 浦川梨恵子, 兵藤不二夫, 柴田英昭

    日本生態学会第66回大会(神戸)  2019.3 

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  • 落葉広葉樹二次林における優占種コナラの成長に影響を与える環境要因

    伊藤 蒼, 兵藤不二夫, 松本哲也, 赤路康朗, 宮崎祐子, 廣部 宗, 西村尚之, 坂本圭児

    日本生態学会第66回大会(神戸)  2019.3 

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  • 分布域が重複するテンナンショウ2種における受粉前生殖隔離

    松本哲也, 宮崎祐子, 末吉昌宏, 千田善博, 廣部 宗

    第50回種生物学シンポジウム(八王子)  2018.12 

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  • ブナ林下層におけるチシマザサ群落の構造および動態

    呉崇洋, 田中 凌太, 藤好 恭平, 赤路 康朗, 廣部 宗, 坂本 圭児

    日本緑化工学会第49回大会(東京)  2018.9 

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  • ブナ若齢実生の成長に光環境と土壌環境が与える影響

    第129回日本森林学会大会  2018 

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  • 同所的に分布するテンナンショウ2種の繁殖特性

    日本生態学会第65回大会  2018 

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  • Four-year stump sprout dynamics of two deciduous oak species after cutting in an abandoned coppice forest

    第129回日本森林学会大会  2018 

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  • 冷温帯林の二次遷移に伴う地上部−地下部の生態特性とアリ群集の植生の変化

    日本生態学会第65回大会  2018 

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  • ブナ実生と共生する外生菌根菌層の解析

    中国四国地区生物系三学会合同大会(山口大会)  2018 

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  • 中国半乾燥地においてJuniperus sabinaの被覆が植物群落構造に与える影響

    第129回日本森林学会大会  2018 

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  • 中国山地のブナ天然林における主要構成樹種の24年間の動態

    第129回日本森林学会大会  2018 

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  • ブナ実生の資源分配と菌根共生に微環境が与える影響

    日本生態学会第64回大会  2017 

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  • モンゴル国北方林における山火事と伐採が森林の更新に与える影響

    第128回日本森林学会大会  2017 

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  • ヒノキ人工林の斜面に沿った土壌の窒素無機化特性と有機態窒素存在形態

    第128回日本森林学会大会  2017 

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  • 暖温帯落葉広葉樹二次林におけるコナラ個体群の動態:30年間の観測と年輪解析結果

    第128回日本森林学会大会  2017 

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  • Effects of large-sized forest fire and illegal cutting on the regeneration of a boreal forest in Mongolia

    The 60th Symposium of the IAVS  2017 

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  • 全国各地の森林リターおよび表層土壌に含まれる水銀の分布

    第128回日本森林学会大会  2017 

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  • モンゴル国北方林における火災と違法伐採がシベリアカラマツの更新に与える影響

    第127回日本森林学会大会  2016 

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  • 落葉広葉樹二次林における土壌有機態窒素の粒径分画による評価

    第127回日本森林学会大会  2016 

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  • ブナ林下層の異なる光環境下で生育するチシマザサの葉群における光順応性について

    第127回日本森林学会大会  2016 

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  • ブナ実生の生残および生長と周辺成木との血縁度の関係

    日本生態学会第63回大会  2016 

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  • 強度のシカ食害下にある冷温帯落葉広葉樹林における不嗜好性植物アシウテンナンショウの個体群構造

    日本生態学会第63回大会  2016 

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  • ブナ実生の出現および生残の時空間変動

    第127回日本森林学会大会  2016 

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  • カントウマムシグサの性表現型決定の至近要因と個体サイズの関係

    第66回応用森林学会  2015 

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  • 年輪解析による落葉広葉樹二次林の成立過程の推定

    第46回日本緑化工学会大会  2015 

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  • 中国半乾燥地の固定砂丘上におけるArtemisia ordosica Krasch.群落の構造にJuniperus sabina L.と土壌表層の環境条件が与える影響

    第46回日本緑化工学会大会  2015 

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  • 落葉広葉樹二次林における皆伐後1年間の萌芽更新と実生更新

    日本生態学会第62回大会  2015 

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  • モンゴル国北方林における違法伐採を伴う大規模火災による森林劣化

    第126回日本森林学会大会  2015 

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  • 中国の半乾燥地に生育するArtemisia ordosica Krasch.の群落構造に環境要因が与える影響

    第126回日本森林学会大会  2015 

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  • モンゴル国マンダルゴビ地域における草本種の窒素利用特性の違い

    第126回日本森林学会大会  2015 

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  • 氷ノ山におけるブナの天然更新動態:実生追跡・長期毎木・年輪・遺伝構造から

    第126回日本森林学会大会  2015 

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  • アシウテンナンショウの性表現に環境条件が与える影響

    第47回種生物学シンポジウム  2015 

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  • モンゴル半乾燥地域におけるアクナテルム属群落の水利用特性

    日本生態学会第61回大会  2014 

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  • ブナ実生の3年間の成長・生残と環境条件の関係:実生の樹齢の違いを考慮したモデルによる解析

    第125回日本森林学会大会  2014 

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  • ブナ天然林における林冠樹種の違いがブナ下層木の生残と成長に与える影響

    第125回日本森林学会大会  2014 

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  • 放棄された落葉広葉樹二次林の成立過程

    植生学会第19回大会  2014 

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  • モンゴル国の乾燥地における草本性"Key resource"群落の立地特性

    第124回森林学会大会  2013 

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  • ブナ-ホオノキ混交林におけるブナ下層木個体群の動態

    植生学会第18回大会  2013 

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  • Effects of anthropogenic forest fire on the regeneration of boreal forests in semi-arid regions of Mongolia

    56th Annual Symposium of the International Association for Vegetation Science  2013 

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  • モンゴル国の乾燥地における草本性“Key resource”群落の水分と養分の利用特性

    第124回森林学会大会  2013 

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  • Microphysical environmental controls on local variation in dwarf bamboo (Sasa palmata Nakai) distribution in a cool–temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan

    日本生態学会第60回大会  2013 

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  • 西日本のブナ原生林における年輪解析による動態の解明

    第124回森林学会大会  2013 

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  • モンゴル国の北方林における大規模火災後の更新特性

    日本緑化工学会・日本景観生態学会・応用生態工学会3大会合同大会(ELR2012東京)  2012 

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  • モンゴル国の北方林における大規模火災後の樹木の侵入と定着

    第123回日本森林学会大会  2012 

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  • 西日本のブナ天然林における19年間の林分動態

    第123回本森林学会大会  2012 

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  • Emerging and survival of culms in a bamboo Phyllosachys bambusoides stand

    Joint Meeting of The 59th Annual Meeting of ESJ and The 5th EAFES International Congress  2012 

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  • Spatial distribution of Fagus crenata seedlings and saplings in a cool temperate old-growth forest of western Japan: Effects of dwarf bamboo, topographic features, and canopy openness

    Joint Meeting of The 59th Annual Meeting of ESJ and The 5th EAFES International Congress  2012 

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  • Colonization and community structure of root-associated microorganisms of Sabina vulgaris with soil depth in a semiarid desert ecosystem with shallow groundwater

    Joint Meeting of The 59th Annual Meeting of ESJ and The 5th EAFES International Congress  2012 

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  • 氷ノ山後山那岐山国定公園のブナ天然林における19年間の林分動態

    植生学会第17回大会  2012 

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  • 乾燥程度の異なるモンゴル草原生態系において放牧が土壌窒素形態変化の空間的不均質性に与える影響

    第58回日本生態学会大会  2011 

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  • 中国毛烏素沙地における臭柏(Sabina vulgaris)群落のクローン構造

    第58回日本生態学会大会  2011 

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  • モンゴル国北部の明瞭な森林・草原境界における土壌化学性の変化

    第62回応用森林学会研究発表会・林業技術情報報告会合同大会  2011 

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  • モンゴル国forest-steppe地域における北方林の山火事後の遷移過程

    第121回日本森林学会大会  2010 

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  • モンゴル国forest-steppe地域における北方林樹種の山火事に対する更新応答と遷移過程

    日本緑化工学会第41回大会  2010 

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  • Regulation of water loss under contrasting light conditions for Quercus glauca and Eurya japonica

    東アジア生態学会連合第4回大会  2010 

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  • ヒノキ人工林における強度間伐が表層土壌に与える影響

    日本緑化工学会第41回大会  2010 

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  • 乾燥に対する樹木の水分通導性の変化〜環孔材は散孔材よりも通水に有利なのか?〜

    第57回日本生態学会大会  2010 

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  • 大山ブナ二次林における下層植生の空間分布

    第57回日本生態学会大会  2010 

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  • 極東ロシアの山火事跡地において炭が制御する実生の更新

    第57回日本生態学会大会  2010 

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  • 乾燥程度の異なるモンゴル草原生態系において放牧による被食が土壌化学性の空間的不均質性に与える影響

    第57回日本生態学会大会  2010 

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  • モンゴル国のforest-steppe地域の南限におけるBetula platyphylla林の動態にかく乱と気候変動が与える影響

    第120回日本森林学会大会  2009 

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  • モンゴルのステップにおける連続した小雨への潅木と草本の反応

    第56回日本生態学会大会  2009 

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  • 大山ブナ二次林の林分構造と樹種の空間的出現特性

    第120回日本森林学会大会  2009 

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  • 大山ブナ二次林における林床環境の空間的不均質性

    第120回日本森林学会大会  2009 

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  • コナラとシラカンバにおける木部道管の通水特性キャビテーションの発生と解消

    第120回日本森林学会大会  2009 

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  • 森林火災による残存有機物の空間分布−有機物分解や植生遷移との関わり−

    第119回日本森林学会大会  2008 

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  • 林冠タイプの違いが林床に生育するケネザサの生産特性に与える影響

    第55回日本生態学会大会  2008 

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  • 乾燥程度の異なるモンゴル草原生態系において放牧の有無が表層土壌の特性に与える影響

    第55回日本生態学会大会  2008 

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  • コナラとシラカンバにおける水分通導度の日変化:遠心法から評価した潜在的な通水能との比較

    第119回日本森林学会大会  2008 

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  • 中国半乾燥地に生育する2種類のヨモギの水ストレス耐性の比較〜通水コンダクタンスと樹体内の水ポテンシャル勾配〜

    第55回日本生態学会大会  2008 

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  • モンゴルの草原ステップにおいてCaragana microphyllaが形成するマウンドの土壌特性

    日本沙漠学会第19回学術大会  2008 

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  • Cuurent shoot morphology of Larix gmelinii at the first order branch level: Chronological pattern and nitrogen fertilization effects. 1. Light environment.

    Meeting on Larix Project  2007 

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  • アカマツ二次林における下層木の除去が林冠木の生産性と水利用特性に与える影響

    第118回日本森林学会大会  2007 

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  • Development of stand structure in larch forests that grow on permafrost

    第54回日本生態学会大会  2007 

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  • Growth and water relations of Artemisia sphaerocephala grown in different water regimes

    第58回森林学会関西支部等合同大会  2007 

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  • 森林土壌における窒素動態の不均質性

    東京農工大学大学院共生科学技術研究院環境資源共生科学部門伊豆田研究室セミナー  2007 

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  • Age sequence of stand structure, carbon accumulation and allocation, and net primary production in permafrost larch (Larix gmelinii) ecosystems in Siberia: current knowledge and future study

    7th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA-7)  2007 

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  • Effects of unburned moss island on local soil properties in a burned black spruce forest in interior Alaska

    7th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA-7)  2007 

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  • Nitrogen cycling in larch forests on permafrost in central Siberia

    7th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA-7)  2007 

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  • Plant responses to biogeochemical shifts in nitrogen dynamics following wild fire

    7th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA-7)  2007 

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  • Fire effects on DOC and metal concentrations in an Alaskan boreal forest

    7th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA-7)  2007 

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  • 冷温帯落葉広葉樹林の斜面に沿った土壌窒素無機化特性の時空間的変動

    日本生態学会第53回大会  2006 

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  • 樹木内部における通導性と季節変化

    日本生態学会第53回大会  2006 

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  • 森林における土壌の空間的不均質性

    日本科学者会議岡山大学農学部班講演会  2006 

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  • N施肥が永久凍土帯カラマツ林生態系内N循環に及ぼす影響

    日本生態学会第53回大会  2006 

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  • Impacts of nitrogen fertilization on soil nitrogen dynamics in a larix forest in Tura, Central Siberia

    6th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA6)  2005 

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  • Variations in soil properties along a riverside toposequence in Central Siberia

    Meeting on Larix project  2005 

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  • 森林における土壌の空間的不均質性

    京都大学大学院農学研究科森林科学専攻森林育成学分野セミナー  2005 

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  • The effects of soil N dynamics on the distribution of understory vegetation in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation

    AcidRain2005 (7th International Conference on Acid Deposition)  2005 

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  • Responses of leaf N concentration to fertilization by larix and alder in Tura, Central Siberia

    6th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA6)  2005 

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  • Variations in soil properties along a riverside toposequence in Central Siberia

    6th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA6)  2005 

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  • Stand structure and carbon allocation of Larix gmelinii forest ecosystem on continuous permafrost region in Siberia: analysis using indices of above- and below-grond inter-tree competition

    6th International Conference on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic (GCCA6)  2005 

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  • Long-term development of larch forest ecosystems on continuous permafrost of Siberia: structural constraints and implications to carbon accumulation

    5th International Workshop on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic  2004 

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  • 水のみ場の移動が林内放牧牛の行動圏に及ぼす影響

    日本畜産学会,第103回大会  2004 

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  • Changes in the spatial heterogeneity of soil nitrogen transformations after long-term repeated fires in a dry tropical forest in Thailand

    森林総合研究所立地環境研究領域セミナー:Nitrogen- its dynamics in forest ecosystems and research frontier  2004 

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  • Does nitrogen limit for plant growth in larch forest in Tura, central Siberia

    5th International Workshop on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic  2004 

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  • N cycling at Larix stand in Tura, central Siberia

    5th International Workshop on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic  2004 

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  • N cycling at Larix stand at Tura - preliminary results-

    4th International Workshop on Global Change: Connection to the Arctic  2003 

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  • 溶存炭素中炭水化物濃度の時空間的な変化

    日本林学会,第114回大会  2003 

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  • 熱帯季節林における土壌化学性の空間的異質性ー繰り返し火災からの経過年数に伴う変化ー

    日本生態学会,第50回大会  2003 

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  • Decomposition of high quality leaf litters in cool temperate forest

    The VIII INTECOL  2002 

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  • 熱帯季節林における土壌の窒素無機化特性の空間的異質性-森林火災履歴による違い-

    日本林学会,第113回大会  2002 

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  • 半乾燥地において植物が創り出す土壌の空間的異質性と植物の生理・生態的特性

    日本生態学会,第49回大会自由集会  2002 

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  • 森林生態系内における窒素循環機構の空間的異質性

    環境科学会,2002年会  2002 

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  • トチノキ繁殖個体における3年間の純生産の配分

    日本生態学会,第48回大会  2001 

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  • 中国毛烏素沙地における土壌特性の空間変動パターンと植生

    日本生態学会,第48回大会  2001 

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  • Fine root biomass in relation to soil N supply in a cool temperate forest: a comparison between mull and moder forest floor types

    The 6th symposium of the International Society of Root Research  2001 

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  • Soil NO3ミ for plants: saturated or not? -Estimation of soil NO3ミ availability and plant ability of NO3ミ uptake in Japanese forest-

    N2001 The Second International Nitrogen Conference  2001 

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  • トチノキ個体群の開花フェノロジー

    日本生態学会第47回大会  2000 

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Research Projects

  • ベトナム中部の海岸珪砂砂丘における残存在来種林と外来種植林地の生態学的特性の解明

    Grant number:22K05748  2022.04 - 2025.03

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  基盤研究(C)

    廣部 宗, 三木 直子, 松本 哲也

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    Grant amount:\4160000 ( Direct expense: \3200000 、 Indirect expense:\960000 )

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  • Role of soil microbial function and diversity on determining soil fertility along a topographic gradient

    Grant number:21H02235  2021.04 - 2025.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    舘野 隆之輔, 徳地 直子, 廣部 宗, 兵藤 不二夫, 磯部 一夫

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    Grant amount:\17160000 ( Direct expense: \13200000 、 Indirect expense:\3960000 )

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  • Regional variation in nitrogen retention potential of surface soil in Japanese forests

    Grant number:18K05747  2018.04 - 2022.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Hirobe Muneto

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    Grant amount:\3120000 ( Direct expense: \2400000 、 Indirect expense:\720000 )

    To investigate nitrogen retention potential of surface soil in Japanese forests, soil samples were collected from forests across Japan with different climatic conditions, vegetation, and parent materials, and analyzed for net nitrogen mineralization, the quantity and quality of organic nitrogen with different degradability, and the percentage of incorporation of the tracer inorganic nitrogen in soil organic matter. The results indicated that most of the tracer inorganic nitrogen was not incorporated into soil organic matter that showed relatively low carbon/nitrogen ratio of organic matter bound to fine mineral particles, suggesting that forests with such soils may be more sensitive to external nitrogen loading.

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  • Acclimating mechanisms of dwarf bamboos dominating understory layers in a beech forest

    Grant number:15K07828  2015.04 - 2018.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Sakamoto Keiji

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    Grant amount:\4940000 ( Direct expense: \3800000 、 Indirect expense:\1140000 )

    We have demonstrated the acclimating mechanisms of dwarf bamboo, Sasa kurilensis, to the different light conditions in the understory of a beech forest. Density and biomass of S. kurilensis were significantly largest under the gap, and smallest under the canopy trees of Fagus crenata. Maximum photosynthetic rate per a culm was estimated from the photosynthetic rate per a unit leaf area, leaf areas, and leaf numbers of a culm. The values were lowest under the canopy trees of F. crenata, and significant differences were not detected between the values under the gap and the canopy trees of Magnolia obovata. S. kurlensis dominates the understory in a beech forest by the acclimatization in the different light conditions caused by different canopy types.

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  • Relationships between nitrogen in mineral associated organic matter and nitrogen retention of forest soils

    Grant number:26450196  2014.04 - 2018.03

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)

    Hirobe Muneto, Hyodo Fujio

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    Grant amount:\5070000 ( Direct expense: \3900000 、 Indirect expense:\1170000 )

    We tried to understand nitrogen (N) retention of forest soils, focusing on N in mineral associated organic matter (MAOM). In the experiment, we also tried to consider the topographic variations in soil N transformations. In the examined two forest stands, the results of N-15 addition incubation suggested that N over fine mineral particles (silt and clay) did not related to N retention, and that lower C/N ratio of MAOM indicated lower N retention. Further research in many forest types is needed for generalization.

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  • N saturation mechanism along the forest aging and influence simulation by PnET-CN

    Grant number:19380086  2007 - 2010

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    TOKUCHI Naoko, OHTE Nobuhito, KOYAMA Lina, HISHI Takuo, KANEKO Yuko, HIROBE Muneto, HOBARA Satoru, TATENO Ryunsuke, FUKUSHIMA Keitaro

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    Grant amount:\19240000 ( Direct expense: \14800000 、 Indirect expense:\4440000 )

    We Studied N dynamics using ^<15>N dilution method. Immobilization rates were always larger than mineralization and nitrification rates throughout the year and stand age. The relationship between N transformation rates and soil properties ; dissolved organic carbon concentration and soil microbial biomass etc., differed among the seasons. Based on the ^<18>O of NO_3^- of soil solution and the simulation of N immobilization, immobilization of NO_3^- in soil solution needed a few weeks. These results show that abiotic immobilization is one of the important mechanisms for soil N retention in the forest ecosystem.

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  • Studies on revegetation techniques and its evaluation for DSS prevention

    Grant number:17405001  2005 - 2008

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    YOSHIKAWA Ken, MAKI Taichi, YAMAMOTO Fukujyu, YAMANAKA Norikazu, OHTE Nobuhito, HIROBE Muneto, MIKI Naoko, WANG Ringhe, UNDARMAA Jamsran

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    Grant amount:\6830000 ( Direct expense: \6200000 、 Indirect expense:\630000 )

    黄砂発生防止のために、環境に配慮した緑化技術の開発を目指して、植栽試験と灌木ステップの生態的特性および乾燥地に生育する植物の生理特性の解明を行った。その結果、無灌漑でも植林できる方法として、冬季植栽の可能性が明らかとなった。また、灌木ステップにおける灌木の防砂効果と灌木マウンドの栄養的特性を定量的に評価できた。さらに、典型的な乾燥地植物である臭柏の耐光性、耐寒性のメカニズムを解明した。

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  • 皆伐一斉造林施業にともなう土壌窒素動態の時空間的変動

    Grant number:17780126  2005 - 2006

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  若手研究(B)

    廣部 宗

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    Grant amount:\2000000 ( Direct expense: \2000000 )

    森林施業を考慮した窒素循環機構の時空間的な変動を把握するための基礎的知見として,本研究では約80年輪伐により管理されているスギ人工林を対象に,林齢と地形(斜面上の位置)が土壌の窒素動態に及ぼす影響を明らかにすることを目的とした.
    京都大学フィールド科学教育研究センター和歌山研究林近郊のスギ人工林を調査地とし,調査地内の植裁後6年,16年,31年,42年,および90年の5林分を調査対象とした.調査対象林分の右岸斜面において,斜面に沿った尾根部から谷部まで等間隔に5つの土壌採取位置を設定し,それぞれの土壌採取位置で等高線方向に2m間隔で決定した5つの土壌採取地点から2005年7月に土壌を採取した.採取した土壌試料数は各林分で25サンプル,合計125サンプルである.本年度も採取した土壌の分析を継続し,これまでに実験室培養による窒素形態変化特性,全炭素・全窒素濃度,pH,および有効態リン酸濃度を分析・測定した。その結果,窒素の形態変化特性には林齢による変動も地形による変動もみられたが、その他の土壌特性値は主に地形による変動を示した.また,調査地に埋設したイオン交換樹脂を回収し,吸着された無機態窒素を分析した結果,斜面の下部では土壌中の無機態移動量が林齢によって大きな差がなかったが,斜面の上部では30年生以降の林分でやや多い傾向があった.窒素安定同位体を用いた総窒素形態変化特性と土壌中の溶存有機物については現在も分析を継続しており,今後これらの結果を総合して皆伐一斉造林施業にともなう土壌窒素動態の時空間的変動とその決定要因についてさらに考察を深める.

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  • Development of bio-resource recycling agricultural system, and water cleanin system with effective use of digestive fluids from biogas-plant.

    Grant number:16380223  2004 - 2007

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    SUGIMOTO Yasuhiro, KUNITAKE Hisato, SIOMORI Kouichiro, KIRIMURA Masaaki, MORIYA Kazuyuki

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    Grant amount:\16530000 ( Direct expense: \15900000 、 Indirect expense:\630000 )

    The effect of massive application of digestive-juice (1000 kg N/ha: DJ) getting from biogas-plant on the dry matter and N yield, NOs-N content of plant etc was compared with chemical fertilizer (CF) for Knot grass (Paspalum distichum L.) cultivated in the paddy field. The significant difference was not found between treatments in dry matter and N yield, and NO_3-N level of plant was low in each treatment. Nitrate-N contents of ground-water was lower in DJ (0.50 mg1-1) than thatofCF (0.86 mg1-1). CH_4 and N_2O emissions were low in both treatments. From above result, DJ is equivalent to CF as the fertilizer, and it is thought that Knot grass cultivation in paddy field with massive input of DJ is possible method for high yield and good quality forage production system without environmental pollutions.
    The effects of DJ on sugars (mainly glucose and fructose) and organic acids of blueberries were examined. There are to observe any effect of the DJ on sugar composition. However, the total sugar contents was higher in the DJ plot than that of CF plot. Most of the organic acids in the fruit were citrates, and the DJ did not appear to influence their component percentages. However, total organic acid content was lower in DJ.
    DJ was solidified by transforming it into gel capsules with alginic acid and then drying these capsules 1).Alginic acid and activated charcoal were added to the DJ. The mixture was dripped into a calcium chloride solution, which was then filtered to obtain the capsules. The addition of activated charcoal was effective in preventing the humic substances from dissolving into the effluent after preparation, as it absorbed the humic substances from the digestive fluid. We also believe it to have been effective in solidifying the nitrogen con-tent and in delaying the release of DJ components. Immediately after preparation and before drying, the diameter of a single grain was 4. 1 mm, in comparison with 2. 8 mm after drying. One dried capsule contained 15,000 ppm of total nitrogen, so we were able to prepare an effective fertilizer by solidifying the nitrogen con-tent of the digestive fluid.

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  • Carbon and nitrogen accumulation mehcamnisms in forested ecosystem and its estimation

    Grant number:15380105  2003 - 2006

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    TOKUCHI Naoko, OHTE Nobuhito, HIROBE Muneto, TATENO Ryunosuke

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    Grant amount:\16000000 ( Direct expense: \16000000 )

    In this study, we used stable and radioactive C isotopes with soil fractionation methods in a C_3 coniferous plantation converted from C_4 grassland, in Japan. The difference in δ^<13>C values between the surface litter and the soil organic carbon (SOC) below the litter was 5‰ or greater; this large isotopic difference was attributed to rapid decomposition in the litter layer and preservation of C derived from the previous C_4 vegetation. Most SOC Δ^<14>C values were negative throughout the soil profile, suggesting that most of the SOC in the soil profile was recalcitrant and had been preserved for a long time. Only the surface sand values were slightly positive. These results suggest that most newly input C is consumed at the soil surface. The low ability of these soils to preserve newly input C is one factor in the slow recovery of soil C. From the results of soil organic matter with vegetation re-growth, there was no significant change in soil C, although the surface soil organic matter changed with forest management. It reached the plateau after 40 years of re-growth. The value was almost similar to the accumulated organic matter in the climax forest. It is considered that carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the forested ecosystem reaches the potential amount after 40 years of forest re-growth.

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  • 森林生態系における窒素循環機構の空間的異質性に関する研究

    Grant number:97J02714  1998

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  特別研究員奨励費

    廣部 宗

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    Grant amount:\900000 ( Direct expense: \900000 )

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