2021/12/07 更新

写真a

イザワ マシュー リチャード ミツオ
IZAWA MATTHEW RICHAR
IZAWA MATTHEW RICHAR
所属
惑星物質研究所 准教授
職名
准教授
外部リンク

学位

  • 博士(学術・地質学・惑星科学)

  • 修士(理学・地質学)

研究分野

  • 自然科学一般 / 固体地球科学

  • 自然科学一般 / 宇宙惑星科学

学歴

  • University of Western Ontario   Earth Sciences   PhD. Planetary Science/Geology

    2008年9月 - 2012年8月

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  • University of Western Ontario   Earth Sciences   MSc. Geology

    2006年9月 - 2008年8月

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経歴

  • 岡山大学   惑星物質研究所   准教授   Associate Professor

    2021年10月 - 現在

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    国名:日本国

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  • 岡山大学   Institute for Planetary Materials   助教

    2016年7月 - 2021年10月

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  • Brock University   Earth Sciences   Postdoctoral Research Fellow

    2015年10月 - 2016年6月

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  • Royal Ontario Museum   Mineralogy   Postdoctoral Research Fellow

    2014年10月 - 2015年9月

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  • University of Winnipeg   Geography   Postdoctoral Research Fellow

    2012年10月 - 2014年9月

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論文

  • Reflectance spectroscopy of ilmenites and related Ti and Ti Fe oxides (200 to 2500 nm): Spectral–compositional–structural relationships 査読

    Matthew R.M. Izawa, Daniel M. Applin, Matthew Q. Morison, Edward A. Cloutis, Paul Mann, Stanley A. Mertzman

    Icarus   362   114423 - 114423   2021年7月

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114423

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  • Round up the unusual suspects: Near-Earth Asteroid 17274 (2000 LC16) a plausible D-type parent body of the Tagish Lake meteorite 査読

    Gordon M. Gartrelle, Paul S. Hardersen, Matthew R.M. Izawa, Matthew C. Nowinski

    Icarus   361   114349 - 114349   2021年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114349

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  • Salt – A critical material to consider when exploring the solar system 査読

    M.R.M. Izawa, P.L. King, P. Vernazza, J.A. Berger, W.A. McCutcheon

    Icarus   359   114328 - 114328   2021年5月

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114328

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  • Illuminating the dark side of the asteroid population: Visible near-infrared (0.7–2.45 μm) surface mineralogy modeling of D-type asteroids using Shkuratov theory 査読

    Gordon M. Gartrelle, Paul S. Hardersen, Matthew R.M. Izawa, Matthew C. Nowinski

    Icarus   354   114043 - 114043   2021年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2020.114043

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  • Petrogenesis, alteration, and shock history of intermediate shergottite Northwest Africa 7042: Evidence for hydrous magmatism on Mars? 査読

    T.V. Kizovski, M.R.M. Izawa, K.T. Tait, D.E. Moser, J.M.D. Day, B.C. Hyde, L.F. White, L. Kovarik, S.D. Taylor, D.E. Perea, I.R. Barker, B.R. Joy

    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta   283   103 - 123   2020年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2020.05.030

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  • Mineralogical Criteria for the Parent Asteroid of the “Carbonaceous” Achondrite NWA 6704 査読

    Allison M. McGraw, Vishnu Reddy, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Juan A. Sanchez, Lucille Le Corre, Edward A. Cloutis, Daniel M. Applin, Neil Pearson

    The Astronomical Journal   159 ( 3 )   107 - 107   2020年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:American Astronomical Society  

    DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab5fe7

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    その他リンク: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/ab5fe7

  • Compositional Constraints for Lucy Mission Trojan Asteroids via Near-Infrared Spectroscopy 査読

    B. N. L. Sharkey, V. Reddy, J. A. Sanchez, M. R. M. Izawa, J. P. Emery

    The Astronomical Journal   158 ( 5 )   204 - 214   2019年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Organic Matter Preservation and Incipient Mineralization of Microtubules in 120 Ma Basaltic Glass 査読

    Izawa Matthew R. M, Dynes James J, Banerjee Neil R, Flemming Roberta L, MacLean Lachlan C. W, Hetherington Callum J, Matveev Sergei, Southam Gordon

    FRONTIERS IN EARTH SCIENCE   7   2019年6月

  • The unexpected surface of asteroid (101955) Bennu 査読

    D. S. Lauretta, D. N. DellaGiustina, C. A. Bennett, D. R. Golish, K. J. Becker, S. S. Balram-Knutson, O. S. Barnouin, T. L. Becker, W. F. Bottke, W. V. Boynton, H. Campins, B. E. Clark, H. C. Connolly, C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny, J. P. Dworkin, J. P. Emery, H. L. Enos, V. E. Hamilton, C. W. Hergenrother, E. S. Howell, M. R.M. Izawa, H. H. Kaplan, M. C. Nolan, B. Rizk, H. L. Roper, D. J. Scheeres, P. H. Smith, K. J. Walsh, C. W.V. Wolner, D. E. Highsmith, J. Small, D. Vokrouhlický, N. E. Bowles, E. Brown, K. L. Donaldson Hanna, T. Warren, C. Brunet, R. A. Chicoine, S. Desjardins, D. Gaudreau, T. Haltigin, S. Millington-Veloza, A. Rubi, J. Aponte, N. Gorius, A. Lunsford, B. Allen, J. Grindlay, D. Guevel, D. Hoak, J. Hong, D. L. Schrader, J. Bayron, O. Golubov, P. Sánchez, J. Stromberg, M. Hirabayashi, C. M. Hartzell, S. Oliver, M. Rascon, A. Harch, J. Joseph, S. Squyres, D. Richardson, L. McGraw, R. Ghent, R. P. Binzel, M. M.Al Asad, C. L. Johnson, L. Philpott, H. C.M. Susorney, E. A. Cloutis, R. D. Hanna, F. Ciceri, A. R. Hildebrand, E. M. Ibrahim, L. Breitenfeld, T. Glotch, A. D. Rogers, S. Ferrone, C. A. Thomas, Y. Fernandez, W. Chang, A. Cheuvront, D. Trang, S. Tachibana, H. Yurimoto, J. R. Brucato, G. Poggiali, M. Pajola, E. Dotto, E. Mazzotta Epifani, M. K. Crombie, C. Lantz, J. de Leon, J. Licandro, J. L.Rizos Garcia, S. Clemett, K. Thomas-Keprta, S. Van wal

    Nature   568 ( 7750 )   55 - 60   2019年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. NASA’S Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft recently arrived at the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, a primitive body that represents the objects that may have brought prebiotic molecules and volatiles such as water to Earth1. Bennu is a low-albedo B-type asteroid2 that has been linked to organic-rich hydrated carbonaceous chondrites3. Such meteorites are altered by ejection from their parent body and contaminated by atmospheric entry and terrestrial microbes. Therefore, the primary mission objective is to return a sample of Bennu to Earth that is pristine—that is, not affected by these processes4. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft carries a sophisticated suite of instruments to characterize Bennu’s global properties, support the selection of a sampling site and document that site at a sub-centimetre scale5–11. Here we consider early OSIRIS-REx observations of Bennu to understand how the asteroid’s properties compare to pre-encounter expectations and to assess the prospects for sample return. The bulk composition of Bennu appears to be hydrated and volatile-rich, as expected. However, in contrast to pre-encounter modelling of Bennu’s thermal inertia12 and radar polarization ratios13—which indicated a generally smooth surface covered by centimetre-scale particles—resolved imaging reveals an unexpected surficial diversity. The albedo, texture, particle size and roughness are beyond the spacecraft design specifications. On the basis of our pre-encounter knowledge, we developed a sampling strategy to target 50-metre-diameter patches of loose regolith with grain sizes smaller than two centimetres4. We observe only a small number of apparently hazard-free regions, of the order of 5 to 20 metres in extent, the sampling of which poses a substantial challenge to mission success.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1033-6

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  • The operational environment and rotational acceleration of asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx observations 査読

    C. W. Hergenrother, C. K. Maleszewski, M. C. Nolan, J.-Y. Li, C. Y. Drouet, d’Aubigny, F. C. Shelly, E. S. Howell, T. R. Kareta, M. R. M. Izawa, M. A. Barucci, E. B. Bierhaus, H. Campins, S. R. Chesley, B. E. Clark, E. J. Christensen, D. N. DellaGiustina, S. Fornasier, D. R. Golish, C. M. Hartzell, B. Rizk, D. J. Scheeres, P. H. Smith, X.-D. Zou, D. S. Lauretta, The OSIRIS-REx Team

    Nature Communications   10 ( 1291 )   1 - 4   2019年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Spectral reflectance properties of magnetites: Implications for remote sensing 査読

    Izawa Matthew R. M, Cloutis Edward A, Rhind Tesia, Mertzman Stanley A, Applin Daniel M, Stromberg Jessica M, Sherman David M

    ICARUS   319   525 - 539   2019年2月

  • Ceres’ spectral link to carbonaceous chondrites – analysis of the dark background materials 査読

    M. Schäfer, T. Schäfer, M. R. M. Izawa, E. A. Cloutis, S. E. Schröder, T. Roatsch, F. Preusker, K. Stephan, K.-D. Matz, C. A. Raymond, C. T. Russell

    Meteoritics and Planetary Science   53 ( 9 )   1925 - 1945   2018年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Spectral properties and geology of bright and dark materials on dwarf planet Ceres 査読

    Guneshwar Thangjam, Andreas Nathues, Thomas Platz, Martin Hoffmann, Edward A. Cloutis, Kurt Mengel, M. R. M. Izawa, Daniel M. Applin

    Meteoritics and Planetary Science   53 ( 9 )   1961 - 1982   2018年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Characterization of Microbial Communities Hosted in Quartzofeldspathic and Serpentinite Lithologies in Jeffrey Mine, Canada 査読

    Ronholm Jennifer, Goordial Jacqueline, Sapers Haley M, Izawa Matthew R. M, Applin Daniel M, Pontefract Alexandra, Omelon Christopher R, Lamarche-Gagnon Guillaume, Cloutis Edward A, Whyte Lyle G

    ASTROBIOLOGY   18 ( 8 )   1008 - 1022   2018年8月

  • Reflectance Spectroscopy of Chondrites 査読

    Edward A. Cloutis, Matthew, R.M. Izawa, Pierre Beck

    Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids: Physical, Chemical and Spectroscopic Observations Paving the Way to Exploration, Edited N. Abreu   273 - 343   2018年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Ultraviolet spectral reflectance of carbonaceous materials 査読

    Daniel M. Applin, Matthew R.M. Izawa, Edward A. Cloutis, Jeffrey J. Gillis-Davis, Karly M. Pitman, Ted L. Roush, Amanda R. Hendrix, Paul G. Lucey

    Icarus   307   40 - 82   2018年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Academic Press Inc.  

    A number of planetary spacecraft missions have carried instruments with sensors covering the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. However, there exists a general lack of relevant UV reflectance laboratory data to compare against these planetary surface remote sensing observations in order to make confident material identifications. To address this need, we have systematically analyzed reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials in the 200–500 nm spectral range, and found spectral-compositional-structural relationships that suggest this wavelength region could distinguish between otherwise difficult-to-identify carbon phases. In particular (and by analogy with the infrared spectral region), large changes over short wavelength intervals in the refractive indices associated with the trigonal sp2 π–π* transition of carbon can lead to Fresnel peaks and Christiansen-like features in reflectance. Previous studies extending to shorter wavelengths also show that anomalous dispersion caused by the σ–σ* transition associated with both the trigonal sp2 and tetrahedral sp3 sites causes these features below λ = 200 nm. The peak wavelength positions and shapes of π–π* and σ–σ* features contain information on sp3/sp2, structure, crystallinity, and powder grain size. A brief comparison with existing observational data indicates that the carbon fraction of the surface of Mercury is likely amorphous and submicroscopic, as is that on the surface of the martian satellites Phobos and Deimos, and possibly comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, while further coordinated observations and laboratory experiments should refine these feature assignments and compositional hypotheses. The new laboratory diffuse reflectance data reported here provide an important new resource for interpreting UV reflectance measurements from planetary surfaces throughout the solar system, and confirm that the UV can be rich in important spectral information.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.02.012

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  • Spectral reflectance “deconstruction” of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and implications for spectroscopic investigations of dark asteroids 査読

    Edward A. Cloutis, Valerie B. Pietrasz, Cain Kiddell, Matthew R.M. Izawa, Pierre Vernazza, Thomas H. Burbine, Francesca DeMeo, Kimberly T. Tait, James F. Bell, Paul Mann, Daniel M. Applin, Vishnu Reddy

    Icarus   305   203 - 224   2018年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Academic Press Inc.  

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) are important materials for understanding the early evolution of the solar system and delivery of volatiles and organic material to the early Earth. Presumed CC-like asteroids are also the targets of two current sample return missions: OSIRIS-REx to asteroid Bennu and Hayabusa-2 to asteroid Ryugu, and the Dawn orbital mission at asteroid Ceres. To improve our ability to identify and characterize CM2 CC-type parent bodies, we have examined how factors such as particle size, particle packing, and viewing geometry affect reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 CC. The derived relationships have implications for disc-resolved examinations of dark asteroids and sampleability. It has been found that reflectance spectra of slabs are more blue-sloped (reflectance decreasing toward longer wavelengths as measured by the 1.8/0.6 µm reflectance ratio), and generally darker, than powdered sample spectra. Decreasing the maximum grain size of a powdered sample results in progressively brighter and more red-sloped spectra. Decreasing the average grain size of a powdered sample results in a decrease in diagnostic absorption band depths, and redder and brighter spectra. Decreasing porosity of powders and variations in surface texture result in spectral changes that may be different as a function of viewing geometry. Increasing thickness of loose dust on a denser powdered substrate leads to a decrease in absorption band depths. Changes in viewing geometry lead to different changes in spectral metrics depending on whether the spectra are acquired in backscatter or forward-scatter geometries. In backscattered geometry, increasing phase angle leads to an initial increase and then decrease in spectral slope, and a general decrease in visible region reflectance and absorption band depths, and frequent decreases in absorption band minima positions. In forward scattering geometry, increasing phase angle leads to small non-systematic changes in spectral slope, and general decreases in visible region reflectance, and absorption band depths. The highest albedos and larger band depths are generally seen in the lowest phase angle backscattering geometry spectra. The reddest spectra are generally seen in the lowest phase angle backscatter geometry spectra. For the same phase angle, spectra acquired in forward scatter geometry are generally redder and darker and have shallower absorption bands than those acquired in backscatter geometry. Overall, backscatter geometry-acquired spectra are flatter, brighter, and have deeper 0.7 µm region absorption band depths than forward scatter geometry-acquired spectra. It was also found that the 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 µm absorption bands in Murchison spectra, which are attributable to various Fe electronic processes, are ubiquitous and can be used to recognize CM2 chondrites regardless of the physical properties of the meteorite and viewing geometry.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.01.015

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  • A mineralogical archive of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle preserved in the subsurface of the Río Tinto system 査読

    David C. Fernández-Remolar, Neil Banerjee, David Gómez-Ortiz, Matthew Izawa, Ricardo Amils

    American Mineralogist   103 ( 3 )   394 - 411   2018年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Walter de Gruyter GmbH  

    The search for extinct and extant life on Mars is based on the study of biosignatures that could be preserved under Mars-like, extreme conditions that are replicated in different terrestrial analog environments. The mineral record in the subsurface of the Río Tinto system is one example of a Mars analog site that has been exposed to weathering conditions, including the biogeochemical activity of Fe and S chemolithotrophic bacteria, for millions of years. The SEM-EDAX analysis of different samples recovered in the Peña de Hierro area from four boreholes, ranging from 166 to 610 m in depth, has provided the identification of microbial structures that have affected a suite of hydrothermal minerals (∼345 Ma) as well as minerals likely produced by biological activity in more recent times (&lt
    7 Ma). The hydrothermal minerals correspond to reduced sulfur or sulfate-bearing compounds (e.g., pyrite and barite) that are covered by bacilli- or filamentous-like microbial structures and/or secondary ferrous carbonates (e.g., siderite) with laminar to spherical structures. The secondary iron carbonates can be in direct contact or above an empty interphase with the primary hydrothermal minerals following a wavy to bent contact. Such an empty interphase is usually filled with nanoscale, straight filamentous structures that have a carbonaceous composition. The occurrence of a sulfur and iron chemolithotrophic community in the Río Tinto basement strongly suggests that the association between sulfur-bearing minerals, dissolution scars and secondary minerals of biological origin is a complex process involving the microbial attack on mineral surfaces by sulfur reducing bacteria followed by the precipitation of iron-rich carbonates. In this scenario, iron sulfide compounds such as pyrite would act as electron donors under microbial oxidation, while sulfate minerals such as barite would act as electron acceptors through sulfate reduction. Furthermore, the formation of siderite would have resulted from carbonate biomineralization of iron chemoheterotrophic organims or other microorganisms that concentrate carbonate through metabolic pathways. Although the distribution of the mineral biosignatures at depth clearly follows a redox gradient, they show some irregular allocation underground, suggesting that the geochemical conditions governing the microbial activity are affected by local changes associated with the fracturing pattern of the Río Tinto basement. The abundance of sulfur- and iron-bearing minerals in the Mars crust suggests that the Río Tinto mineral biosignatures can be useful in the search for extant and extinct subsurface life on the red planet.

    DOI: 10.2138/am-2018-6288

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  • Nitrogen Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions of Seafloor-Altered Terrestrial Basaltic Glass: Implications for Astrobiology 査読

    G. E. Bebout, N. R. Banerjee, M. R. M. Izawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Lazzeri, L. A. Ranieri, E. Nakamura

    Astrobiology   18 ( 3 )   2018年3月

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  • Spectral reflectance (0.35-2.5 µm) properties of garnets: Implications for remote sensing detection and characterization 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, E. A. Cloutis, T. Rhind, S.A. Mertzman, J. Poitras, Daniel M. Applin, P. Mann

    Icarus   300   392 - 410   2018年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.005

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  • Chemical alteration and preservation of sedimentary/ organic nitrogen isotopic signatures in a 2.7 Ga seafloor volcanic sequence 査読

    L. D. Anderson, G. E. Bebout, M. R. M. Izawa, N. J. Bridge, N. R. Banerjee

    International Journal of Astrobiology   1 ( 16 )   2017年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Biogeochemical Cycling of Silver in Acidic, Weathering Environments 査読

    Jeremiah Shuster, Frank Reith, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Roberta L. Flemming, Neil R. Banerjee, Gordon Southam

    MINERALS   7 ( 11 )   2017年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:MDPI AG  

    Under acidic, weathering conditions, silver (Ag) is considered to be highly mobile and can be dispersed within near-surface environments. In this study, a range of regolith materials were sampled from three abandoned open pit mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Spain. Samples were analyzed for Ag mineralogy, content, and distribution using micro-analytical techniques and high-resolution electron microscopy. While Ag concentrations were variable within these materials, elevated Ag concentrations occurred in gossans. The detection of Ag within younger regolith materials, i.e., terrace iron formations and mine soils, indicated that Ag cycling was a continuous process. Microbial microfossils were observed within crevices of gossan and their presence highlights the preservation of mineralized cells and the potential for biogeochemical processes contributing to metal mobility in the rock record. An acidophilic, iron-oxidizing microbial consortium was enriched from terrace iron formations. When the microbial consortium was exposed to dissolved Ag, more than 90% of Ag precipitated out of solution as argentojarosite. In terms of biogeochemical Ag cycling, this demonstrates that Ag re-precipitation processes may occur rapidly in comparison to Ag dissolution processes. The kinetics of Ag mobility was estimated for each type of regolith material. Gossans represented 0.6-146.7 years of biogeochemical Ag cycling while terrace iron formation and mine soils represented 1.9-42.7 years and 0.7-1.6 years of Ag biogeochemical cycling, respectively. Biogeochemical processes were interpreted from the chemical and structural characterization of regolith material and demonstrated that Ag can be highly dispersed throughout an acidic, weathering environment.

    DOI: 10.3390/min7110218

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  • Zinc and germanium in the sedimentary rocks of Gale Crater on Mars indicate hydrothermal enrichment followed by diagenetic fractionation 査読

    Jeff A. Berger, Mariek E. Schmidt, Ralf Gellert, Nicholas I. Boyd, Elstan D. Desouza, Roberta L. Flemming, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Douglas W. Ming, Glynis M. Perrett, Elizabeth B. Rampe, Lucy M. Thompson, Scott J. V. VanBommel, Albert S. Yen

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS   122 ( 8 )   1747 - 1772   2017年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    Zinc and germanium enrichments have been discovered in sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the rover Curiosity. Concentrations of Zn (910840ppm) and Ge (6558ppm) are tens to hundreds of times greater than in Martian meteorites and estimates for average silicate Mars. Enrichments occur in diverse rocks including minimally to extensively altered basaltic and alkalic sedimentary rocks. The magnitude of the enrichments indicates hydrothermal fluids, but Curiosity has not discovered unambiguous hydrothermal mineral assemblages. We propose that Zn- and Ge-rich hydrothermal deposits in the source region were dispersed in siliciclastic sediments during transport into the crater. Subsequent diagenetic mobilization and fractionation of Zn and Ge is evident in a Zn-rich sandstone (Windjana; Zn similar to 4000ppm, Ge similar to 85ppm) and associated Cl-rich vein (Stephen; Zn similar to 8000ppm, Ge similar to 60ppm), in Ge-rich veins (Garden City; Zn similar to 2200ppm, Ge similar to 650ppm), and in silica-rich alteration haloes leached of Zn (30-200ppm). In moderately to highly altered silica-rich rocks, Ge remained immobile relative to leached elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, and Ca), consistent with fluid interaction at pH << 7. In contrast, crosscutting Ge-rich veins at Garden City suggest aqueous mobilization as Ge-F complexes at pH<2.5. Multiple jarosite detections by the CheMin X-ray diffractometer and variable Zn concentrations indicate diagenesis of lower Mount Sharp bedrock under acidic conditions. The enrichment and fractionation of Zn and Ge constrains fluid events affecting Gale sediments and can aid in unraveling fluid histories as Curiosity's traverse continues.

    DOI: 10.1002/2017JE005290

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  • Fitting the curve in Excel (R) : Systematic curve fitting of laboratory and remotely sensed planetary spectra 査読

    Michael A. McCraig, Gordon R. Osinski, Edward A. Cloutis, Roberta L. Flemming, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Vishnu Reddy, Sherry K. Fieber-Beyer, Loredana Pompilio, Freek van der Meer, Jeffrey A. Berger, Michael S. Bramble, Daniel M. Applin

    COMPUTERS & GEOSCIENCES   100   103 - 114   2017年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Spectroscopy in planetary science often provides the only information regarding the compositional and mineralogical make up of planetary surfaces. The methods employed when curve fitting and modelling spectra can be confusing and difficult to visualize and comprehend. Researchers who are new to working with spectra may find inadequate help or documentation in the scientific literature or in the software packages available for curve fitting. This problem also extends to the parameterization of spectra and the dissemination of derived metrics. Often, when derived metrics are reported, such as band centres, the discussion of exactly how the metrics were derived, or if there was any systematic curve fitting performed, is not included. Herein we provide both recommendations and methods for curve fitting and explanations of the terms and methods used. Techniques to curve fit spectral data of various types are demonstrated using simple-to-understand mathematics and equations written to be used in Microsoft Excel software, free of macros, in a cut-and-paste fashion that allows one to curve fit spectra in a reasonably user-friendly manner. The procedures use empirical curve fitting, include visualizations, and ameliorates many of the unknowns one may encounter when using black-box commercial software. The provided framework is a comprehensive record of the curve fitting parameters used, the derived metrics, and is intended to be an example of a format for dissemination when curve fitting data.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2016.11.018

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  • Reflectance spectroscopy of oxalate minerals and relevance to Solar System carbon inventories 査読

    Daniel M. Applin, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Edward A. Cloutis

    ICARUS   278   7 - 30   2016年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    The diversity of oxalate formation mechanisms suggests that significant concentrations of oxalic acid and oxalate minerals could be widely distributed in the Solar System. We have carried out a systematic study of the reflectance spectra of oxalate minerals and oxalic acid, covering the 0.2-16 mu m wavelength region. Our analyses show that oxalates exhibit unique spectral features that enable discrimination between oxalate phases and from other commonly occurring compounds, including carbonates, in all regions of the spectrum except for the visible. Using these spectral data, we consider the possible contribution of oxalate minerals to previously observed reflectance spectra of many objects throughout the Solar System, including satellites, comets, and asteroids. We find that polycarboxylic acid dimers and their salts may explain the reflectance spectra of many carbonaceous asteroids in the 3 mu m spectral region. We suggest surface concentration of these compounds may be a type of space weathering from the photochemical and oxidative decomposition of the organic macromolecular material found in carbonaceous chondrites. The stability and ubiquity of these minerals on Earth, in extraterrestrial materials, and in association with biological processes make them useful for many applications in Earth and planetary sciences. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2016.05.005

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  • Effects of viewing geometry, aggregation state, and particle size on reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 chondrite deconvolved to Dawn FC band passes 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Tanja Schaefer, Valerie B. Pietrasz, Edward A. Clouds, Paul Mann, Andreas Nathues, Kurt Mengel, Michael Schaefer, Guneshwar Thangjam, Martin Hoffmann, Kimberly T. Tait, Daniel M. Applin

    ICARUS   266   235 - 248   2016年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    Several current and soon-to-launch missions will investigate 'dark' asteroids, whose spectra have few weak or no distinct spectral features. Some carbonaceous chondrites, particularly the CI and CM groups, are reasonable material analogues for many dark asteroid surfaces. In addition to compositional variations, many non-compositional effects, including viewing geometry, surface particle size and particle sorting, can influence reflectance spectra, potentially complicating mineralogical interpretation of such data from remote surfaces. We have carried out an investigation of the effects of phase angle, particle size, aggregation state, and intra-sample heterogeneity on the reflectance spectra (0.4-1.0 mu m) of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, deconvolved to Dawn Framing Camera (FC) band passes. This study was motivated by the desire to derive information about the surface of Ceres from Dawn FC data. Key spectral parameters derived from the FC multispectral data include various two-band reflectance ratios as well as three-band ratios that have been derived for mineralogical analysis.
    Phase angle effects include increased visible slope with increasing phase angle, a trend that may reverse at very high phase angles. Fine-grained particles exert a strong influence on spectral properties relative to their volumetric proportion. Grain size variation effects include a decrease in spectral contrast and increased visible spectral slope with decreasing grain size. Intra-sample heterogeneity, while spectrally detectable, is of relatively limited magnitude. (c) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.10.029

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  • SURFACE ALBEDO AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF CERES 査読

    Jian-Yang Li, Vishnu Reddy, Andreas Nathues, Lucille Le Corre, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Edward A. Cloutis, Mark V. Sykes, Uri Carsenty, Julie C. Castillo-Rogez, Martin Hoffmann, Ralf Jaumann, Katrin Krohn, Stefano Mottola, Thomas H. Prettyman, Michael Schaefer, Paul Schenk, Stefan E. Schroeder, David A. Williams, David E. Smith, Maria T. Zuber, Alexander S. Konopliv, Ryan S. Park, Carol A. Raymond, Christopher T. Russell

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS   817 ( 2 )   2016年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:IOP PUBLISHING LTD  

    Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active, but possibly sporadic, water outgassing as well as possibly varying spectral characteristics over a timescale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as the newly acquired images by the Dawn Framing Camera, to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, on both a global scale and in local regions, particularly the bright spots inside the Occator crater, over timescales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Sporadic water vapor venting, or any possibly ongoing activity on Ceres, is not significant enough to change the albedo or the area of the bright features in the Occator crater by >15%, or the global albedo by >3% over the various timescales that we searched. Recently reported spectral slope variations can be explained by changing Sun-Ceres-Earth geometry. The active area on Ceres is less than 1 km(2), too small to cause global albedo and spectral variations detectable in our data. Impact ejecta due to impacting projectiles of tens of meters in size like those known to cause observable changes to the surface albedo on Asteroid Scheila cannot cause detectable albedo change on Ceres due to its relatively large size and strong gravity. The water vapor activity on Ceres is independent of Ceres' heliocentric distance, ruling out the possibility of the comet-like sublimation process as a possible mechanism driving the activity.

    DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/817/2/L22

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  • Spectral parameters for Dawn FC color data: Carbonaceous chondrites and aqueous alteration products as potential cerean analog materials 査読

    Tanja Schaefer, Andreas Nathues, Kurt Mengel, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Edward A. Cloutis, Michael Schaefer, Martin Hoffmann

    ICARUS   265   149 - 160   2016年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    We identified a set of spectral parameters based on Dawn Framing Camera (FC) bandpasses, covering the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 mu m, for mineralogical mapping of potential chondritic material and aqueous alteration products on dwarf planet Ceres. Our parameters are inferred from laboratory spectra of well-described and clearly classified carbonaceous chondrites representative for a dark component. We additionally investigated the FC signatures of candidate bright materials including carbonates, sulfates and hydroxide (brucite), which can possibly be exposed on the cerean surface by impact craters or plume activity. Several materials mineralogically related to carbonaceous chondrites, including pure ferromagnesian phyllosilicates, and serpentinites were also investigated. We tested the potential of the derived FC parameters for distinguishing between different carbonaceous chondritic materials, and between other plausible cerean surface materials. We found that the major carbonaceous chondrite groups (CM, CO, CV, CK, and CR) are distinguishable using the FC filter ratios 0.56/0.44 mu m and 0.83/0.97 mu m. The absorption bands of Fe-bearing phyllosilicates at 0.7 and 0.9 mu m in terrestrial samples and CM carbonaceous chondrites can be detected by a combination of FC band parameters using the filters at 0.65, 0.75, 0.83, 0.92 and 0.97 mu m. This set of parameters serves as a basis to identify and distinguish different lithologies on the cerean surface by FC multispectral data. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.10.005

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  • Cathodoluminescence and Raman Spectromicroscopy of Forsterite in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Astromineralogy 査読

    Gucsik Arnold, Gyollai Ildiko, Nishido Hirotsugu, Ninagawa Kiyotaka, Izawa Matthew M. R, Jaeger Cornelia, Ott Ulrich, Simonia Irakli, Berczi Szaniszlo, Kayama Andmasahiro

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECTROSCOPY   2016年

  • Spectral calibration for deriving surface mineralogy of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa from Hayabusa Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) data 査読

    Megha Bhatt, Vishnu Reddy, Lucille Le Corre, Juan A. Sanchez, Tasha Dunn, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Jian-Yang Li, Kris J. Becker, Lynn Weller

    ICARUS   262   124 - 130   2015年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    We present spectral calibration equations for determining mafic silicate composition of near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra (0.85-2.1 mu m) measured using the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) on board the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft. Itokawa was the target of the Hayabusa sample return mission and has a surface composition similar to LL chondrites. Existing laboratory spectral calibrations (e.g., Dunn, T.L. et al. [2010]. Icarus 208,789-797) use a spectral wavelength range that is wider (0.75-2.5 mu m) than that of the NIRS instrument (0.85-2.1 mu m), making them unfit for interpreting the Hayabusa spectral data currently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS). We used laboratory near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of ordinary chondrites (H, L and LL) from the study of Dunn et al. (Dunn, T.L. et al. [2010]. Icarus 208, 789-797), which we resampled to the NIRS wavelength range. Using spectral parameters extracted from these resampled spectra we established a relationship between band parameters and mafic silicate compositions (olivine and low-Ca pyroxene). We found a correlation >90% between mafic silicate compositions (fayalite and ferrosilite mol.%) estimated by our spectral method, and electron microprobe measured values from Dunn et al. (Dunn, T.L. et al. [2010]. Icarus 208, 789-797). The standard deviation between the measured and estimated values is 1.5 and 1.1 mol.% for fayalite and ferrosilite, respectively. To test the validity of the new equations we blind tested them using nine laboratory spectra of L and LL chondrites with well-known compositions. We found that the absolute difference between the measured and computed values is in the range 0.1-1.6 mol.%. Our study demonstrates that this new calibration is robust and can be applied to Hayabusa NIRS data despite its limited spectral range (0.85-2.1 mu m). We applied the equations to a subset of uncalibrated (no photometric corrections) NIRS spectra and we obtained fayalite and ferrosilite values that are consistent with Itokawa having a LL chondrite surface composition. We intend to develop a photometric model to calibrate the NIRS spectra to standard viewing geometry and apply the new equations to create a global mineralogical map of Itokawa. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.036

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  • Sublimation in bright spots on (1) Ceres 査読

    A. Nathues, M. Hoffmann, M. Schaefer, L. Le Corre, V. Reddy, T. Platz, E. A. Cloutis, U. Christensen, T. Kneissl, J. -Y. Li, K. Mengel, N. Schmedemann, T. Schaefer, C. T. Russell, D. M. Applin, D. L. Buczkowski, M. R. M. Izawa, H. U. Keller, D. P. O'Brien, C. M. Pieters, C. A. Raymond, J. Ripken, P. M. Schenk, B. E. Schmidt, H. Sierks, M. V. Sykes, G. S. Thangjam, J. -B. Vincent

    NATURE   528 ( 7581 )   237 - +   2015年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP  

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt(1) with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity(2,3). Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery(4) of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager(8). These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles(9,10) may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line' 11, which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.

    DOI: 10.1038/nature15754

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  • The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite 査読

    Edward A. Cloutis, Paul Mann, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Daniel M. Applin, Claire Samson, Roman Kruzelecky, Timothy D. Glotch, Stanley A. Mertzman, Karen R. Mertzman, Timothy W. Haltigin, Christopher Fry

    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE   119   155 - 172   2015年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 mu m. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 mu m. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples.
    The CSA intends to make available sample powders (<45 mu m and 45-1000 mu m grain sizes), thin sections, and bulk rock samples, and all analytical data collected in the initial characterisation study to the broader planetary science community.
    Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the definition, development and testing of new analytical instruments for use in planetary missions, as well as possible calibration and ground-truthing of remote sensing data sets. These materials may also be useful as reference materials for cross-calibration between different instruments and laboratories. Comparison of the analytical data for selected samples is useful for highlighting the relative strengths, weaknesses and synergies of different analytical techniques. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2015.09.001

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  • Exploring exogenic sources for the olivine on Asteroid (4) Vesta 査読

    Lucille Le Corre, Vishnu Reddy, Juan A. Sanchez, Tasha Dunn, Edward A. Cloutis, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Paul Mann, Andreas Nathues

    ICARUS   258   483 - 499   2015年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    The detection of olivine on Vesta is interesting because it may provide critical insights into planetary differentiation early in our Solar System's history. Ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Asteroid (4) Vesta have suggested the presence of olivine on the surface. These observations were reinforced by the discovery of olivine-rich HED meteorites from Vesta in recent years. However, analysis of data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft has shown that this "olivine-bearing unit" is actually impact melt in the ejecta of Oppia crater. The lack of widespread mantle olivine, exposed during the formation of the 19 km deep Rheasilvia basin on Vesta's South Pole, further complicated this picture. Ammannito et al. (Ammannito, E. et al. [2013a]. Nature 504, 122-125) reported the discovery of local scale olivine-rich units in the form of excavated material from the mantle using the Visible and InfraRed spectrometer (VIR) on Dawn. These sites are concentrated in the walls and ejecta of craters Arruntia (10.5 km in diameter) and Bellicia (41.7 km in diameter), located in the northern hemisphere, 350-430 km from Rheasilvia basin's rim. Here we explore alternative sources for the olivine in the northern hemisphere of Vesta by reanalyzing the data from the VIR instrument using laboratory spectral measurements of meteorites. Our rationale for using the published dataset was to bypass calibration issues and ensure a consistent dataset between the two studies. Our analysis of the VIR data shows that while the interpretation of their spectra as an olivine-rich unit is correct, the nature and origin of that olivine could be more complicated. We suggest that these olivine exposures could also be explained by the delivery of olivine-rich exogenic material. This hypothesis is supported by meteoritical evidence in the form of exogenic xenoliths containing significant amount of olivine in some of the HED meteorites from Vesta. Previous laboratory work on HEDs show that potential sources of olivine on Vesta could be different types of olivine-rich meteorites, either primitive achondrites (acapulcoites, lodranites, ureilites), ordinary chondrites (H, L, LL), pallasites, or carbonaceous chondrites (e.g., CV). Based on our spectral band parameters analysis, the lack of correlation between the location of these olivine-rich terrains and possible mantle-excavating events, and supported by observations of HED meteorites, we propose that a probable source for the olivine seen in the northern hemisphere corresponds to remnants of impactors made of olivine-rich meteorites. The best curve-matching results with laboratory spectra suggest these units are HED material mixed with either ordinary chondrites, or with some olivine-dominated meteorites such as R-chondrites. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.01.018

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  • Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites 査読

    Nigel J. F. Blamey, John Parnell, Sean McMahon, Darren F. Mark, Tim Tomkinson, Martin Lee, Jared Shivak, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Neil R. Banerjee, Roberta L. Flemming

    NATURE COMMUNICATIONS   6   7399   2015年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP  

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity.

    DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8399

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  • Link between the potentially hazardous Asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 and the Chelyabinsk meteoroid tenuous 査読

    Vishnu Reddy, David Vokrouhlicky, William F. Bottke, Petr Pravec, Juan A. Sanchez, Bruce L. Gary, Rachel Klima, Edward A. Cloutis, Adrian Galad, Tan Thiam Guan, Kamil Hornoch, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Peter Kusnirak, Lucille Le Corre, Paul Mann, Nicholas Moskovitz, Brian Skiff, Jan Vrastil

    ICARUS   252   129 - 143   2015年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    We explored the statistical and compositional link between Chelyabinsk meteoroid and potentially hazardous Asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 to investigate their proposed relation proposed by Borovicka et al. (Borovicka, J., et al. [2013]. Nature 503,235-237). First, using a slightly more detailed computation we confirm that the orbit of the Chelyabinsk impactor is anomalously close to the Asteroid 1999 NC43. We find similar to(1-3) x 10(-4) likelihood of that to happen by chance. Taking the standpoint that the Chelyabinsk impactor indeed separated from 1999 NC43 by a cratering or rotational fission event, we run a forward probability calculation, which is an independent statistical test. However, we find this scenario is unlikely at the similar to(10(-3)-10(-2)) level. Secondly, we note that efforts to conclusively prove separation of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid from (86039) 1999 NC43 in the past needs to meet severe criteria: relative velocity similar or equal to 1-10 m/s or smaller, and similar or equal to 100 km distance (i.e. about the Hill sphere distance from the parent body). We conclude that, unless the separation event was an extremely recent event, these criteria present an insurmountable difficulty due to the combination of strong orbital chaoticity, orbit uncertainty and incompleteness of the dynamical model with respect to thermal accelerations. This situation leaves the link of the two bodies unresolved and calls for additional analyses. With that goal, we revisit the presumed compositional link between (86039) 1999 NC43 and the Chelyabinsk body. Boroviaa et al. (Borovicka, J., et al. [2013]. Nature 503,235-237) noted that given its Q-type taxonomic classification, 1999 NC43 may pass this test. However, here we find that while the Q-type classification of 1999 NC43 is accurate, assuming that all Q-types are LL chondrites is not. Our experiment shows that not all ordinary chondrites fall under Q-taxonomic type and not all LL chondrites are Q-types. Spectral curve matching between laboratory spectra of Chelyabinsk and 1999 NC43 spectrum shows that the spectra do not match. Mineralogical analysis of Chelyabinsk (LL chondrite) and (8) Flora (the largest member of the presumed LL chondrite parent family) shows that their olivine and pyroxene chemistries are similar to LL chondrites. Similar analysis of 1999 NC43 shows that its olivine and pyroxene chemistries are more similar to L chondrites than LL chondrites (like Chelyabinsk). Analysis of the spectrum using Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) suggests 1999 NC43 is similar to LL or L chondrite although we suspect this ambiguity is due to lack of temperature and phase angle corrections in the model. While some asteroid pairs show differences in spectral slope, there is no evidence for L and LL chondrite type objects fissioning out from the same parent body. We also took photometric observations of 1999 NC43 over 54 nights during two apparitions (2000, 2014). The lightcurve of 1999 NC43 resembles simulated lightcurves of tumblers in Short-Axis Mode (SAM) with the mean wobbling angle 20 degrees-30 degrees. The very slow rotation of 1999 NC43 could be a result of slow-down by the Yarkovslcy-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. While, a mechanism of the non-principal axis rotation excitation is unclear, we can rule out the formation of asteroid in disruption of its parent body as a plausible cause, as it is unlikely that the rotation of an asteroid fragment from catastrophic disruption would be nearly completely halted.
    Considering all these facts, we find the proposed link between the Chelyabinsk meteoroid and the Asteroid 1999 NC43 to be unlikely. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.01.006

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  • Formation of iron-rich shelled structures by microbial communities 査読

    David C. Fernandez-Remolar, Joan Santamaria, Ricardo Amils, Victor Parro, D. Gomez-Ortiz, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Neil R. Banerjee, Raul Perez Rodriguez, Nuria Rodriguez, Nieves Lopez-Martinez

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES   120 ( 1 )   147 - 168   2015年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    In this paper, we describe the discovery and characterization of shelled structures that occur inside galleries of Pyrenees mines. The structures are formed by the mineralization of iron and zinc oxides, dominantly franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and poorly ordered goethite (-FeO(OH)). Subsurface oxidation and hydration of polymetallic sulfide orebodies produce solutions rich in dissolved metal cations including Fe2+/3+ and Zn2+. The microbially precipitated shell-like structure grows by lateral or vertical stacking of thin laminae of iron oxide particles which are accreted mostly by fungal filaments. The resulting structures are composed of randomly oriented aggregates of needle-like, uniform-sized crystals, suggesting some biological control in the structure formation. Such structures are formed by the integration of two separated shells, following a complex process driven likely by different strategies of fungal microorganisms that produced the complex macrostructure.

    DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002745

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  • Formation of iron-rich shelled structures by microbial communities 査読

    David C. Fernandez-Remolar, Joan Santamaria, Ricardo Amils, Victor Parro, D. Gomez-Ortiz, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Neil R. Banerjee, Raul Perez Rodriguez, Nuria Rodriguez, Nieves Lopez-Martinez

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES   120 ( 1 )   147 - 168   2015年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    In this paper, we describe the discovery and characterization of shelled structures that occur inside galleries of Pyrenees mines. The structures are formed by the mineralization of iron and zinc oxides, dominantly franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and poorly ordered goethite (-FeO(OH)). Subsurface oxidation and hydration of polymetallic sulfide orebodies produce solutions rich in dissolved metal cations including Fe2+/3+ and Zn2+. The microbially precipitated shell-like structure grows by lateral or vertical stacking of thin laminae of iron oxide particles which are accreted mostly by fungal filaments. The resulting structures are composed of randomly oriented aggregates of needle-like, uniform-sized crystals, suggesting some biological control in the structure formation. Such structures are formed by the integration of two separated shells, following a complex process driven likely by different strategies of fungal microorganisms that produced the complex macrostructure.

    DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002745

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  • Revisiting the Rochechouart impact structure, France 査読

    Haley M. Sapers, Gordon R. Osinski, Neil R. Banerjee, Ludovic Ferriere, Philippe Lambert, Matthew R. M. Izawa

    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE   49 ( 12 )   2152 - 2168   2014年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    The Rochechouart impact structure, south-central France (45 degrees 50'N, 0 degrees 46'E), is a partly eroded, approximately 200 Myr, complex impact structure. The impactite suite at Rochechouart provides an excellent example of gradational boundaries and transitional lithologies that have been historically difficult to classify with standard impactite nomenclature. Here, we present the first detailed scanning electron microscopy-based description of the Rochechouart impactites integrated with hand-sample and petrographic observations with the goal of understanding the clast-matrix relationships of transitional lithologies. Three main impact-generated hydrothermal alteration assemblages are also recognized: (1) argillic-like, (2) carbonate, and (3) oxide. Our results support the existence of a continuum between clast-rich impact melt rocks and glass-rich clastic breccias (suevites) that must be represented in universal classification schemes. This suite of impactites from the Rochechouart impact structure is used as a test case for a recently published classification scheme based on the nature of the groundmass setting a precedent for classification of impactites with limited to no geological context such as deeply eroded terrestrial impact structures and future sample return missions. The re-evaluation of the melt-bearing Rochechouart impactites questions the currently accepted size of the crater, suggesting a much larger original crater diameter.

    DOI: 10.1111/maps.12381

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  • A mineralogical characterization of biogenic calcium carbonates precipitated by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from cryophilic polar regions 査読

    J. Ronholm, D. Schumann, H. M. Sapers, M. Izawa, D. Applin, B. Berg, P. Mann, H. Vali, R. L. Flemming, E. A. Cloutis, L. G. Whyte

    GEOBIOLOGY   12 ( 6 )   542 - 556   2014年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3(s)) can be driven by microbial activity. Here, a systematic approach is used to identify the morphological and mineralogical characteristics of CaCO3(s) precipitated during the heterotrophic growth of micro-organisms isolated from polar environments. Focus was placed on establishing mineralogical features that are common in bioliths formed during heterotrophic activity, while in parallel identifying features that are specific to bioliths precipitated by certain microbial phylotypes. Twenty microbial isolates that precipitated macroscopic CaCO3(s) when grown on B4 media supplemented with calcium acetate or calcium citrate were identified. A multimethod approach, including scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (-XRD), was used to characterize CaCO3(s) precipitates. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that complete CaCO3(s) crystal encrustation of Arthrobacter sp. cells was common, while encrustation of Rhodococcus sp. cells did not occur. Several euhedral and anhedral mineral formations including disphenoid-like epitaxial plates, rhomboid-like aggregates with epitaxial rhombs, and spherulite aggregates were observed. While phylotype could not be linked to specific mineral formations, isolates tended to precipitate either euhedral or anhedral minerals, but not both. Three anhydrous CaCO3(s) polymorphs (calcite, aragonite, and vaterite) were identified by -XRD, and calcite and aragonite were also identified based on TEM lattice-fringe d value measurements. The presence of certain polymorphs was not indicative of biogenic origin, although several mineralogical features such as crystal-encrusted bacterial cells, or casts of bacterial cells embedded in mesocrystals are an indication of biogenic origin. In addition, some features such as the formation of vaterite and bacterial entombment appear to be linked to certain phylotypes. Identifying phylotypes consistent with certain mineralogical features is the first step toward discovering a link between these crystal features and the precise underlying molecular biology of the organism precipitating them.

    DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12102

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  • Spectral features of biogenic calcium carbonates and implications for astrobiology 査読

    B. L. Berg, J. Ronholm, D. M. Applin, P. Mann, M. Izawa, E. A. Cloutis, L. G. Whyte

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY   13 ( 4 )   353 - 365   2014年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS  

    The ability to discriminate biogenic from abiogenic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) would be useful in the search for extant or extinct life, since CaCO3 can be produced by both biotic and abiotic processes on Earth. Bioprecipitated CaCO3 material was produced during the growth of heterotrophic microbial isolates on medium enriched with calcium acetate or calcium citrate. These biologically produced CaCO3, along with natural and synthetic non-biologically produced CaCO3 samples, were analysed by reflectance spectroscopy (0.35-2.5 mu m), Raman spectroscopy (532 and 785 nm), and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (365 and 405 nm excitation). Optimal instruments for the discrimination of biogenic from abiogenic CaCO3 were determined to be reflectance spectroscopy, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Multiple absorption features in the visible light region occurred in reflectance spectra for most biogenic CaCO3 samples, which are likely due to organic pigments. Multiple fluorescence peaks occurred in emission spectra (405 nm excitation) of biogenic CaCO3 samples, which also are best attributed to the presence of organic compounds; however, further analyses must be performed in order to better determine the cause of these features to establish criteria for confirming the origin of a given CaCO3 sample. Raman spectroscopy was not useful for discrimination since any potential Raman peaks in spectra of biogenic carbonates collected by both the 532 and 785 nm lasers were overwhelmed by fluorescence. However, this also suggests that biogenic carbonates may be identified by the presence of this organic-associated fluorescence. No reliable spectroscopic differences in terms of parameters such as positions or widths of carbonate-associated absorption bands were found between the biogenic and abiogenic carbonate samples. These results indicate that the presence or absence of organic matter intimately associated with carbonate minerals is the only potentially useful spectral discriminator for the techniques that were examined, and that multiple spectroscopic techniques are capable of detecting the presence of associated organic materials. However, the presence or absence of intimately associated organic matter is not, in itself, an indicator of biogenicity.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1473550414000366

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  • Chelyabinsk meteorite explains unusual spectral properties of Baptistina Asteroid Family 査読

    Vishnu Reddy, Juan A. Sanchez, William F. Bottke, Edward A. Cloutis, Matthew R. M. Izawa, David P. O'Brien, Paul Mann, Matthew Cuddy, Lucille Le Corre, Michael J. Gaffey, Gary Fujihara

    ICARUS   237   116 - 130   2014年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    We investigated the spectral and compositional properties of Chelyabinsk meteorite to identify its possible parent body in the main asteroid belt. Our analysis shows that the meteorite contains two spectrally distinct but compositionally indistinguishable components of LL5 chondrite and shock blackened/impact melt material. Our X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the two lithologies of the Chelyabinsk meteorite are extremely similar in modal mineralogy. The meteorite is compositionally similar to LL5 chondrite and its most probable parent asteroid in the main belt is a member of the Flora family. Our work confirms previous studies (e.g., Vernazza et al. [2008]. Nature 454, 858-860; de Leon, J., Licandro, J., Serra-Ricart, M., Pinilla-Alonso, N., Campins, H. [2010]. Astron. Astrophys. 517, A23; Dunn, T.L., Burbine, T.H., Bottke, W.F., Clark, J.P. [2013]. Icarus 222,273-282), linking LL chondrites to the Flora family. Intimate mixture of LL5 chondrite and shock blackened/impact melt material from Chelyabinsk provides a spectral match with (8) Flora, the largest asteroid in the Flora family. The Baptistina family and Flora family overlap each other in dynamical space. Mineralogical analysis of (298) Baptistina and 11 small family members shows that their surface compositions are similar to LL chondrites, although their absorption bands are subdued and albedos lower when compared to typical S-type asteroids. A range of intimate mixtures of LL5 chondrite and shock blackened/impact melt material from Chelyabinsk provides spectral matches for all these BAF members. We suggest that the presence of a significant shock/impact melt component in the surface regolith of BAF members could be the cause of lower albedo and subdued absorption bands. The conceptual problem with part of this scenario is that impact melts are very rare within ordinary chondrites. Of the 42,000 ordinary chondrites, less than 0.5% (203) of them contain impact melts. A major reason that impact melts are rare in meteorites is that high impact velocities (V>10 km/s) are needed to generate the necessary shock pressures and temperatures (e.g., Pierazzo, E., Melosh, H.J. [1998]. Hydrocode modeling of oblique impacts: The fate of the projectile. In: Origin of the Earth and Moon, Proceedings of the Conference. LPI Contribution No. 957) unless the target material is highly porous. Nearly all asteroid impacts within the main belt are at 5 km/s (Bottke, W.F., Nolan, M.C., Greenberg, R., Kolvoord, R.A. [1994]. Collisional lifetimes and impact statistics of near-Earth asteroids. In: Tucson, Gehrels T. (Ed.), Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids. The University of Arizona Press, Arizona, pp. 337-357), which prevents them from producing much impact melt unless they are highly porous. However, shock darkening is an equally efficient process that takes place at much lower impact velocities (similar to 2 km/s) and can cause the observed spectral effects. Spectral effects of shock darkening and impact melt are identical. The parent asteroid of BAF was either a member of the Flora family or had the same basic composition as the Floras (LL Chondrite). The shock pressures produced during the impact event generated enough impact melt or shock blackening to alter the spectral properties of BAF, but keep the BAF composition largely unchanged. Collisional mixing of shock blackened/impact melt and LL5 chondritic material could have created the Baptistina Asteroid Family with composition identical to those of the Floras, but with subdued absorption bands.
    Shock darkening and impact melt play an important role in altering the spectral and albedo properties of ordinary chondrites and our work confirms earlier work by Britt and Pieters (Britt, D.T., Pieters, C.M. [19941. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 3905-3919). (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.027

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  • Reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm) of solid-state polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, D. M. Applin, L. Norman, E. A. Cloutis

    ICARUS   237   159 - 181   2014年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds based on fused aromatic rings, and are formed in a variety of astrophysical, solar nebula and planetary processes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known or suspected to occur in a wide variety of planetary settings including icy satellites, Titan's hazes, carbonaceous meteorites, comet nuclei, ring particles; and terrestrial organic-rich lithologies such as coals, asphaltites, and bituminous sands. Relatively few measurements of the visible and near-infrared spectra of PAHs exist, yet this wavelength region (350-2500 nm) is widely used for remote sensing. This study presents detailed analyses of the 350-2500 nm reflectance spectra of 47 fine-grained powders of different high-purity solid-state PAHs. Spectral properties of PAHs change with variations in the number and connectivity of linked aromatic rings and the presence and type of side-groups and heterocycles. PAH spectra are characterized by three strong features near similar to 880 nm, similar to 1145 nm, and similar to 1687 nm due to overtones of vCH fundamental stretching vibrations. Some PAHs are amenable to remote detection due to the presence of diagnostic spectral features, including: N-H stretching overtones at 1490-1515 nm in NH- and NH2-bearing PAHs, aliphatic or saturated bond C-H overtone vibrations at,similar to 1180-1280 nm and,similar to 1700-1860 nm; a broad asymmetric feature between similar to 1450 nm and similar to 1900 nm due to O-H stretching overtones in aromatic alcohols, C-H and C=0 combinations near similar to 2000-2010 nm and similar to 2060-2270 nm in acetyl and carboxyl-bearing PAHs. Other substituents such as sulphonyl, thioether ether and carboxyl heterocycles, or cyano, nitrate, and aromatic side groups, do not produce well-resolved diagnostic spectral features but do cause shifts in the positions of the aromatic C-H vibrational overtone features. Fluorescence is commonly suppressed by the presence of heterocycles, side-groups and in many non-alternant PAHs. The spectral characteristics of PAHs offer the potential, under suitable circumstances, for remote characterization of the classes of PAH present and in some cases, identification of particular heterocyclic or side-group substituents. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.033

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  • Laboratory spectroscopic detection of hydration in pristine lunar regolith 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Edward A. Cloutis, Daniel M. Applin, Michael A. Craig, Paul Mann, Matthew Cuddy

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   390   157 - 164   2014年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Reflectance spectroscopy of Apollo lunar soil samples curated in an air- and water-free, sealed environment since recovery and return to Earth has been carried out under water-, oxygen-, CO2- and organic-controlled conditions. Spectra of these pristine samples contain features near 3 mu m wavelength similar to those observed from the lunar surface by the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-3), Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and Deep Impact Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPDXI) High-Resolution Instrument (HRI) instruments. Spectral feature characteristics and inferred OH/H2O concentrations are within the range of those observed by spacecraft instruments. These findings confirm that the 3 mu m feature from the lunar surface results from the presence of hydration in the form of bound OH and H2O. Implantation of solar wind H+ appears to be the most plausible formation mechanism for most of the observed lunar OH and H2O. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.01.007

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  • Reflectance spectroscopy (200-2500 nm) of highly-reduced phases under oxygen- and water-free conditions 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, D. M. Applin, P. Mann, M. A. Craig, E. A. Cloutis, J. Helbert, A. Maturilli

    Icarus   226 ( 2 )   1612 - 1617   2013年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.08.014

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  • The 2.5–5.1 μm reflectance spectra of HED meteorites and their constituent minerals: Implications for Dawn 査読

    E. A. Cloutis, P. Mann, M. R. M. Izawa, A. Nathues, V. Reddy, H. Hiesinger, L. Le Corre, E. Palomba

    Icarus   225 ( 1 )   581 - 601   2013年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.04.022

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  • Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars 査読

    Melissa M. Battler, Gordon R. Osinski, Darlene S. S. Lim, Alfonso F. Davila, Frederick A. Michel, Michael A. Craig, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Lisa Leoni, Gregory F. Slater, Alberto G. Fairen, Louisa J. Preston, Neil R. Banerjee

    ICARUS   224 ( 2 )   382 - 398   2013年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert similar to 100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m x 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite deposits on Mars. Most terrestrial analogues for Mars jarosites have been identified in temperate environments, where evaporation rates are very high and jarosites form along with other sulfates due to rapid evaporation (e.g. Rio Tinto, Spain; Western Australian acidic saline lake deposits). The GD is a rare example of an analogue site where jarosite precipitates under dominant freezing processes similar to those which could have prevailed on early Mars. Thus, the GD offers a new perspective on jarosite deposition by the upwelling of acidic waters through permafrost at Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis, Mars. The GD also demonstrates that martian deposits may show considerably more chemical and mineral variability than indicated by the current remote sensing data sets. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.05.015

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  • Impact-generated hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars 査読

    Gordon R. Osinski, Livio L. Tornabene, Neil R. Banerjee, Charles S. Cockell, Roberta Flemming, Matthew, R.M. Izawa, Jenine McCutcheon, John Parnell, Louisa J. Preston, Annemarie E. Pickersgill, Alexandra Pontefract, Haley M. Sapers, Gordon Southam

    Icarus   224 ( 2 )   347 - 363   2013年6月

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    出版者・発行元:Elsevier {BV}  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.08.030

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  • Molecular preservation in halite- and perchlorate-rich hypersaline subsurface deposits in the Salar Grande basin (Atacama Desert, Chile): Implications for the search for molecular biomarkers on Mars 査読

    D. C. Fernandez-Remolar, G. Chong-Diaz, M. Ruiz-Bermejo, M. Harir, P. Schmitt-Kopplin, D. Tziotis, D. Gomez-Ortiz, M. Garcia-Villadangos, M. P. Martin-Redondo, F. Gomez, J. A. Rodriguez-Manfredi, M. Moreno-Paz, G. De Diego-Castilla, A. Echeverria, V. N. Urtuvia, Y. Blanco, L. Rivas, M. R. M. Izawa, N. R. Banerjee, C. Demergasso, V. Parro

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES   118 ( 2 )   922 - 939   2013年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    Similarities between the Atacama Desert (Chile) and Mars include extreme aridity, highly oxidizing chemistry, and intense ultraviolet radiation that promoted the photochemical production of perchlorates and nitrates. Concentration of these ions under hyperarid conditions led to the formation of nitrate- and perchlorate-bearing deposits in ephemeral lakes, followed by later deposition of chlorides and sulfates. At some locations, such as the Salar Grande, hypersaline deposits have remained unaltered for millions of years. We conducted a drilling campaign in deposits of the Salar to characterize the preservation state of biological molecules. A 5m deep discontinuous core was recovered and subjected to multitechnique analysis including the antibody microarray-based biosensor LDChip300 and the SOLID (Signs Of Life Detector) instrument, complemented by geophysical, mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular analysis. We identified two units based on the mineralogy: the upper one, from the surface to similar to 320cm depth characterized by a predominance of halite and anhydrite, and the lower one, from 320 to 520cm, with a drop in halite and anhydrite and an enrichment in nitrate and perchlorate. Organic compounds including biomolecules were detected in association with the different depositional and mineralogical units, demonstrating the high capacity for molecular preservation. Hypersaline environments preserve biomolecules over geologically significant timescales; therefore, salt-bearing materials should be high-priority targets for the search for evidence of life on Mars.

    DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20059

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  • Spectral reflectance properties of HED meteorites + CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Comparison to HED grain size and compositional variations and implications for the nature of low-albedo features on asteroid 4 Vesta 査読

    E. A. Cloutis, M. R. M. Izawa, L. Pompilio, V. Reddy, H. Hiesinger, A. Nathues, P. Mann, L. Le Corre, E. Palomba, J. F. Bell III

    Icarus   223 ( 2 )   850 - 877   2013年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.02.003

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  • High surface porosity as the origin of emissivity features in asteroid spectra 査読

    P. Vernazza, M. Delbo, P. L. King, M. R. M. Izawa, J. Olofsson, P. Lamy, F. Cipriani, R. P. Binzel, F. Marchis, B. Merin, A. Tamanai

    ICARUS   221 ( 2 )   1162 - 1172   2012年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    Emission features in the mid-IR domain (7-25 mu m)are quite ubiquitous among large asteroids and therefore offer the potential to uncover their surface composition. However, when comparing these spectra with the actual laboratory spectra of both minerals and meteorites, they do not necessarily match. Here, and in a companion paper by King et al. (in preparation, 2012), we show that by modifying the sample preparation - typically by suspending meteorite and/or mineral powder (<30 mu m) in IR-transparent KBr (potassium bromide) powder - we are able to reproduce the spectral behavior of those main-belt asteroids with emissivity features. This resulting good match between KBr-diluted meteorite spectra and asteroid spectra suggests an important surface porosity (>90%) for the first millimeter for our asteroid sample. It therefore appears that mid-IR emission spectra of asteroids do not only carry information about their surface composition but they can also help us constraining their surface structure (under-dense versus compact surface structure), as suggested by Emery et al. (Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182,496-512) in the case of the Jupiter Trojans. The large surface porosity inferred from the mid-IR spectra of certain asteroids is also implied by two other independent measurements, namely their thermal inertia and their radar albedo. We further clarified how much compositional information can be retrieved from the mid-IR range by focusing our analysis on a single object, 624 Hektor. We showed that the mid-IR range provides critical constraints (i) on its origin and of that of the red Trojans that we locate in the formation regions of the comets, and (ii) on the primordial composition of the dust present in the outer region (>10 AU) of the Solar System's protoplanetary disk. Future investigations should focus on finding the mechanism responsible for creating such high surface porosity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.003

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  • Carbonate precipitation under bulk acidic conditions as a potential biosignature for searching life on Mars 査読

    David C. Fernandez-Remolar, Louisa J. Preston, Monica Sanchez-Roman, Matthew R. M. Izawa, L. Huang, Gordon Southam, Neil R. Banerjee, Gordon R. Osinski, Roberta Flemming, David Gomez-Ortiz, Olga Prieto Ballesteros, Nuria Rodriguez, Ricardo Amils, M. Darby Dyar

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   351   13 - 26   2012年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Recent observations of carbonate minerals in ancient Martian rocks have been interpreted as evidence for the former presence of circumneutral solutions optimal for carbonate precipitation. Sampling from surface and subsurface regions of the low-pH system of Rio Tinto has shown, unexpectedly, that carbonates can form under diverse macroscopic physicochemical conditions ranging from very low to neutral pH (1.5-7.0). A multi-technique approach demonstrates that carbonate minerals are closely associated with microbial activity. Carbonates occur in the form of micron-size carbonate precipitates under bacterial biofilms, mineralization of subsurface colonies, and possible biogenic microstructures including globules, platelets and dumbbell morphologies. We propose that carbonate precipitation in the low-pH environment of Rio Tinto is a process enabled by microbially-mediated neutralization driven by the reduction of ferric iron coupled to the oxidation of biomolecules in microbially-maintained circumneutral oases, where the local pH (at the scale of cells or cell colonies) can be much different than in the macroscopic environment. Acidic conditions were likely predominant in vast regions of Mars over the last four billion years of planetary evolution. Ancient Martian microbial life inhabiting low-pH environments could have precipitated carbonates similar to those observed at Rio Tinto. Preservation of carbonates at Rio Tinto over geologically significant timescales suggests that similarly-formed carbonate minerals could also be preserved on Mars. Such carbonates could soon be observed by the Mars Science Laboratory, and by future missions to the red planet. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.07.015

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  • Characterization of green clay concretions from the Tonggao Formation, South China: Mineralogy, petrogenesis and paleoenvironmental implications 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Roberta L. Flemming, Renbin Zhan, Jisuo Jin

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES   49 ( 9 )   1018 - 1026   2012年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:CANADIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING, NRC RESEARCH PRESS  

    Enigmatic millimetre-scale micro-concretions with pseudocrystal faces and dominated by green clay minerals occur in unfossiliferous siliciclastic mudstone of the Lower Ordovician (479.0-466.0 Ma) Tonggao Formation, South China. The fossil-free mudstone unit is associated with local biodiversity decline. The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of these concretions were unknown previously, and this study comprises a preliminary investigation. The concretions are dominated by Fe-rich phyllosilicate minerals including glauconite and clinochlore, with minor quartz and traces of magnetite. The textural relations between the micro-concretions and the surrounding matrix, and the preservation of original mudstone laminations within the concretions, point to an origin during early diagenesis. The mineralogy and chemistry of these concretions are consistent with an origin in a restricted, hypersaline, relatively deep-water environment, in accordance with stratigraphical and paleonotological data. These micro-concretions provide clues for a stressed environment with poor water circulation and anomalies of salinity and oxygen.

    DOI: 10.1139/E2012-040

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  • Planetary Materials Science and Astrobiology 査読

    Matthew Izawa

    University of Western Ontario   2012年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:学位論文(博士)  

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  • Evidence for life in the isotopic analysis of surface sulphates in the Haughton impact structure, and potential application on Mars 査読

    John Parnell, Adrian J. Boyce, Gordon R. Osinski, Matthew R. M. Izawa, Neil Banerjee, Roberta Flemming, Pascal Lee

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY   11 ( 2 )   93 - 101   2012年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS  

    The analysis of sulphur isotopic compositions in three sets of surface sulphate samples from the soil zone in the Haughton impact structure shows that they are distinct. They include surface gypsum crusts remobilized from the pre-impact gypsum bedrock (mean delta S-34 + 31 parts per thousand), efflorescent copiapite and fibroferrite associated with hydrothermal marcasite (mean delta S-34 - 37 parts per thousand), and gypsum-iron oxide crusts representing weathering of pyritic crater-fill sediments (mean delta S-34 + 7 parts per thousand). Their different compositions reflect different histories of sulphur cycling. Two of the three sulphates have isotopically light (low delta S-34) compositions compared with the gypsum bedrock (mean delta S-34 + 31 parts per thousand), reflecting derivation by weathering of sulphides (three sets of pyrite/marcasite samples with mean delta S-34 of -41, -20 and -8 parts per thousand), which had in turn been precipitated by microbial sulphate reduction. Thus, even in the absence of the parent sulphides due to surface oxidation, evidence of life would be preserved. This indicates that on Mars, where surface oxidation may rule out sampling of sulphides during robotic exploration, but where sulphates are widespread, sulphur isotope analysis is a valuable tool that could be sensitive to any near-surface microbial activity. Other causes of sulphur isotopic fractionation on the surface of Mars are feasible, but any anomalous fractionation would indicate the desirability of further analysis.

    DOI: 10.1017/S1473550411000395

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  • Asteroid (21) Lutetia as a remnant of Earth’s precursor planetesimals 査読

    P. Vernazza, P. Lamy, O. Groussin, T. Hiroi, L. Jorda, P. L. King, M. R. M. Izawa, F. Marchis, M. Birlan, R. Brunetto

    Icarus   216 ( 2 )   650 - 659   2011年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.09.032

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  • QUE 94204: A primitive enstatite achondrite produced by the partial melting of an E chondrite-like protolith 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Roberta L. Flemming, Neil R. Banerjee, Sergei Matveev

    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE   46 ( 11 )   1742 - 1753   2011年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94204, an enstatite achondrite, is a coarse-grained, highly recrystallized, chondrule-free and unbrecciated rock dominated (about 70 vol%) by anhedral, equigranular crystals of orthoenstatite of nearly endmember composition (Fs(0.1-0.4), Wo(0.3-0.4)) with interstitial plagioclase, kamacite, and troilite. Abundance of approximately 120 degrees triple junctions and the close association of metal-sulfide and plagioclase-rich melts indicate that QUE 94204 has undergone limited partial melting with inefficient melt extraction. Mineral chemistry indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. Kamacite in QUE 94204 contains between 2.09 and 2.55 wt% Si, similar to highly metamorphosed EL chondrites. Plagioclase has between 4.31 and 6.66 wt% CaO, higher than other E chondrites but closer in composition to plagioclase from metamorphosed EL chondrites. QUE 94204 troilite contains up to 2.55 wt% Ti, consistent with extensive thermal metamorphism of an E chondrite-like precursor. Results presented in this study indicate that QUE 94204 is the result of low degree, (about 5-20 vol%, probably toward the lower end of this range) partial melting of an E chondrite protolith. Textural and chemical evidence suggests that during the metamorphism of QUE 94204, melts formed first at the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic near approximately 900 degrees C, followed by plagioclase-pyroxene silicate partial melts near approximately 1100 degrees C. Neither the Fe, Ni-FeS nor the plagioclasepyroxene melts were efficiently segregated or extracted. QUE 94204 belongs to a grouplet of similar "primitive enstatite achondrites'' that are analogous to the acapulcoites-lodranites, but that have resulted from the partial melting of an E chondrite-like protolith.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2011.01263.x

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  • Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Organic Matter Associated with Microbial Bioalteration Textures in Basaltic Glass 査読

    L. J. Preston, M. R. M. Izawa, N. R. Banerjee

    ASTROBIOLOGY   11 ( 7 )   585 - 599   2011年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:MARY ANN LIEBERT INC  

    Microorganisms have been found to etch volcanic glass within volcaniclastic deposits from the Ontong Java Plateau, creating micron-sized tunnels and pits. The fossil record of such bioalteration textures is interpreted to extend back similar to 3.5 billion years to include meta-volcanic glass from ophiolites and Precambrian greenstone belts. Bioalteration features within glass clasts from Leg 192 of the Ocean Drilling Program were investigated through optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of petrographic thin sections. Extended depth of focus optical microscopic imaging was used to identify bioalteration tubules within the samples and later combined with FTIR spectroscopy to study the organic molecules present within tubule clusters. The tubule-rich areas are characterized by absorption bands indicative of aliphatic hydrocarbons, amides, esters, and carboxylic groups. FTIR analysis of the tubule-free areas in the cores of glass clasts indicated that they were free of organics. This study further constrains the nature of the carbon compounds preserved within the tubules and supports previous studies that suggest the tubules formed through microbial activity.

    DOI: 10.1089/ast.2010.0604

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  • Weathering of Post-Impact Hydrothermal Deposits from the Haughton Impact Structure: Implications for Microbial Colonization and Biosignature Preservation 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, Neil R. Banerjee, G. R. Osinski, R. L. Flemming, J. Parnell, C. S. Cockell

    ASTROBIOLOGY   11 ( 6 )   537 - 550   2011年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC  

    Meteorite impacts are among the very few processes common to all planetary bodies with solid surfaces. Among the effects of impact on water-bearing targets is the formation of post-impact hydrothermal systems and associated mineral deposits. The Haughton impact structure (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, 75.2 degrees N, 89.5 degrees W) hosts a variety of hydrothermal mineral deposits that preserve assemblages of primary hydrothermal minerals commonly associated with secondary oxidative/hydrous weathering products. Hydrothermal mineral deposits at Haughton include intra-breccia calcite-marcasite vugs, small intra-breccia calcite or quartz vugs, intra-breccia gypsum megacryst vugs, hydrothermal pipe structures and associated surface "gossans," banded Fe-oxyhydroxide deposits, and calcite and quartz veins and coatings in shattered target rocks. Of particular importance are sulfide-rich deposits and their associated assemblage of weathering products. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages were characterized structurally, texturally, and geochemically with X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Primary sulfides (marcasite and pyrite) are commonly associated with alteration minerals, including jarosite (K,Na,H3O) Fe-3(SO4)(2)(OH)(6), rozenite FeSO4 center dot 4(H2O), copiapite (Fe, Mg) Fe-4(SO4)(6)(OH)(2)center dot 20(H2O), fibroferrite Fe(SO4)(OH)center dot 5(H2O), melanterite FeSO4 center dot 7(H2O), szomolnokite FeSO4 center dot H2O, goethite alpha-FeO(OH), lepidocrocite gamma-FeO(OH) and ferrihydrite Fe2O3 center dot 0.5(H2O). These alteration assemblages are consistent with geochemical conditions that were locally very different from the predominantly circumneutral, carbonate-buffered environment at Haughton.
    Mineral assemblages associated with primary hydrothermal activity, and the weathering products of such deposits, provide constraints on possible microbial activity in the post-impact environment. The initial period of active hydrothermal circulation produced primary mineral assemblages, including Fe sulfides, and was succeeded by a period dominated by oxidation and low-temperature hydration of primary minerals by surface waters. Active hydrothermal circulation can enable the rapid delivery of nutrients to microbes. Nutrient availability following the cessation of hydrothermal circulation is likely more restricted; therefore, the biological importance of chemical energy from hydrothermal mineral deposits increases with time. Weathering of primary hydrothermal deposits and dissolution and reprecipitation of mobile weathering products also create many potential habitats for endolithic microbes. They also provide a mechanism that may preserve biological materials, potentially over geological timescales.

    DOI: 10.1089/ast.2011.0612

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  • Micro-X-ray diffraction assessment of shock stage in enstatite chondrites 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Roberta L. Flemming, Neil R. Banerjee, Philip J. A. McCausland

    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE   46 ( 5 )   638 - 651   2011年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    A new method for assessing the shock stage of enstatite chondrites has been developed, using in situ micro-X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) to measure the full width at half maximum (FWHM(chi)) of peak intensity distributed along the direction of the Debye rings, or chi angle (chi), corresponding to individual lattice reflections in two-dimensional XRD patterns. This mu XRD technique differs from previous XRD shock characterization methods: it does not require single crystals or powders. In situ mu XRD has been applied to polished thin sections and whole-rock meteorite samples. Three frequently observed orthoenstatite reflections were measured: (020), (610), and (131); these were selected as they did not overlap with diffraction lines from other phases. Enstatite chondrites are commonly fine grained, stained or darkened by weathering, shock-induced oxidation, and metal/sulfide inclusions; furthermore, most E chondrites have little olivine or plagioclase. These characteristics inhibit transmitted-light petrography, nevertheless, shock stages have been assigned MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02837 (EL3) S3, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91020 (EL3) S5, MAC 02747 (EL4) S4, Thiel Mountains (TIL) 91714 (EL5) S2, Allan Hills (ALHA) 81021 (EL6) S2, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87746 (EH3) S3, Meteorite Hills (MET) 00783 (EH4) S4, EET 96135 (EH4-5) S2, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88180 (EH5) S2, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94204 (EH7) S2, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02225 (EH impact melt) S1; for the six with published shock stages, there is agreement with the published classification. FWHM(chi) plotted against petrographic shock stage demonstrates positive linear correlation. FWHM(chi) ranges corresponding to shock stages were assigned as follows: S1 < 0.7 degrees, S2 = 0.7-1.2 degrees, S3 = 1.2-2.3 degrees, S4 = 2.3-3.5 degrees, S5 > 3.5 degrees, S6-not measured. Slabs of Abee (EH impact-melt breccia), and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2212 (EL6) were examined using mu XRD alone; FWHM(chi) values place both in the S2 range, consistent with literature values. Micro-XRD analysis may be applicable to other shocked orthopyroxene-bearing rocks.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2011.01180.x

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  • Geochemical biosignatures preserved in microbially altered basaltic glass 査読

    N. R. Banerjee, M. R. M. Izawa, H. M. Sapers, M. J. Whitehouse

    SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS   43 ( 1-2 )   452 - 457   2011年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    Microbes play an important role in the alteration of volcanic rocks emplaced on the seafloor as pillow basalts and hyaloclastites. Microbially altered basaltic glass hosts characteristic hollow etch structures, which are commonly filled and preserved by the precipitation of new mineral phases within the etch structures. Bioalteration textures occur in two distinct morphologies: micron-scale granular aggregates, and long tubules (up to hundreds of microns). SIMS analyses of basaltic glass samples with abundant tubular bioalteration from the Ontong Java Plateau reveal significant chemical variations in areas with tubular microbial etch structures including: alkalis, which show depletion in Na and enrichment in K; enrichments in the alkaline elements (Ca, Sr, Ba) and the high field strength elements (Ti, Y, Zr); the first row transition metals V, Cr and Mn are slightly enriched, while Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn are depleted; W and the lanthanides are enriched in tubule-bearing regions; slight enrichments in U and P are also observed. SEM imaging following SIMS analysis revealed complex micron-scale spongy textures that may be related to microbial glass dissolution. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    DOI: 10.1002/sia.3577

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  • PRESERVATION OF MICROBIAL ICHNOFOSSILS IN BASALTIC GLASS BY TITANITE MINERALIZATION 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Neil R. Banerjee, Roberta L. Flemming, Nathan J. Bridge

    CANADIAN MINERALOGIST   48 ( 5 )   1255 - 1265   2010年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:MINERALOGICAL ASSOC CANADA  

    Glassy volcanic rocks and their metamorphosed equivalents are a recently realized setting in the search for traces of early life on Earth, as revealed by ichnofossils. Numerous authors have demonstrated that the record of microbial colonization of submarine basaltic glass extends to at least 3.5 Ga. Microbes rapidly colonize the glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks exposed to water, producing characteristic granular and tubular bioalteration textures. We present results of a mineralogical study of the materials mineralizing bioalteration structures in oceanic crust samples from the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), and subaqueously emplaced, formerly glassy, basaltic rocks from the Abitibi greenstone belt (AGB). Previously reported Ca- and Ti-rich material in the OJP tubules was determined to be very fine-grained crystalline titanite (CaTiSiO(5)) by micro X-ray diffraction (mu XRD). Formerly glassy pillow lavas and interpillow hyaloclastites in AGB samples contain tubular and granular structures that also have been preserved by titanite mineralization, as confirmed by mu XRD. Titanite mineralization associated with bioalteration in the OJP samples strongly suggests that mineralization of these trace fossils occurred penecontemporaneously with bioalteration. Early precipitation of titanite within the alteration structures enables their preservation in the geological record, potentially for billions of years in the absence of penetrative deformation. Mineralogical identification of titanite by in situ non-destructive mu XRD has provided essential phase information, which is complementary to other microscopic and microanalytical data.

    DOI: 10.3749/canmin.48.5.1255

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  • Composition and evolution of the early oceans: Evidence from the Tagish Lake meteorite 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, H. W. Nesbitt, N. D. MacRae, E. L. Hoffman

    EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS   298 ( 3-4 )   443 - 449   2010年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Laboratory leaching studies of the Tagish Lake meteorite demonstrate that the most readily leached cations of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are Mg. Ca, Na and K: with the most readily leached anions being SO4. Cl and PO4 (in decreasing order of abundances). Soluble organics were not analyzed due to limited sample sizes. Magnesium and sulfate - the most abundant solutes leached from Tagish Lake meteonte - are also the most abundant ions of salts lining fractures of aqueously altered meteorites. These same ions probably were the most abundant solutes of the first permanent oceans, which probably formed during or soon after the "late heavy bombardment" stage (similar to 4.2 10 3.7 Ga). Considering the residence time of CI in modern seawater, and the composition of the exposed continental crust to at least 3.3 Ga, evolution of seawater from Mg-SO4-dominated to NaCl-dominated would have required about 3 x 10(5) yr and could not have been complete until about 3.0 to 3.3 Ga. The calculations also suggest that the first permanent oceans were more saline than modern seawater and, as argued by others, these aspects have significant implications for evolution of life. Many solar system bodies besides Earth probably derived a significant proportion of their volatile and soluble constituents from carbonaceous chondnte material, therefore. primordial solutions similar to those presented here were likely important in the early evolution of aqueous systems throughout the solar system, including those present on carbonaceous chondrite parent asteroids and icy outer solar system satellites (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.08.026

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  • Multi-technique investigation reveals new mineral, chemical, and textural heterogeneity in the Tagish Lake C2 chondrite 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, R. L. Flemming, P. J. A. McCausland, G. Southam, D. E. Moser, I. R. Barker

    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE   58 ( 10 )   1347 - 1364   2010年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    The Tagish Lake meteorite, an ungrouped C2 chondrite that is related to Cl and CM chondrites. is a heterogeneous accretionary breccia with several distinct lithologies that, in bulk, are thought to represent the first known sample of a primitive carbonaceous D-type asteroid. Textural and chemical zoning of clasts and matrix have been little studied and promise additional insight into early solar system processes in both the solar nebula and on the Tagish Lake parent asteroid. We have examined an intact 2.9 g fragment and two polished thin sections from the spring 2000 (non-pristine) Tagish Lake collection to ascertain the major mineralogy and textures of notable features such as chondrules, amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), inclusions, clasts, matrix, and fusion crust. We designed three stages of analysis for this friable meteorite: an initial, non-destructive in situ reconnaissance by mu XRD to document meteorite mineralogy and textures and to identify features of interest, followed by spatially correlated mu XRD, SEM-EDX and colour SEM-CL analysis of polished thin sections to fully understand mineralogy and the record of texture development, and finally higher resolution SEM-BSE mapping to document smaller scale relationships.
    Our analyses reveal several previously unreported or poorly characterized features: (1) distinctive colour cathodoluminescence (CL) zoning in relict CAI spinel, in chondrule and AOA forsterite, and in calcite nodules occurring throughout the Tagish Lake matrix. Forsterite frequently shows CL colour and intensity zonation that does not correspond with major or minor element differences resolvable with EPMA, indicating a trace element and/or structural CL-activation mechanism for the zonation that is likely of secondary origin; (2) an irregular inclusion dominated by magnesioaluminate spinel, dolomite, and phyllosilicates with traces of a Ca, Ti oxide phase (likely perovskite) interpreted to be a relict CAI: (3) variable preservation of mesostasis glass in porphyritic olivine chondrules. We anticipate that our multi-technique methodology, particularly non-destructive mu XRD, can be successfully applied to other rare and friable materials such as the pristine Tagish Lake fragments. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.05.018

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  • Mineralogical and spectroscopic investigation of enstatite chondrites by X-ray diffraction and infrared reflectance spectroscopy 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, P. L. King, R. L. Flemming, R. C. Peterson, P. J. A. McCausland

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS   115   2010年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    The mineralogy and infrared reflectance spectra of 13 Enstatite (E) chondrite meteorite finds spanning the full range of textural alteration grades in both EL and EH classes have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data was used to determine quantitative major mineral abundances. Sample-correlated mid-infrared (2.0 to 25.0 mu m; 4500 cm(-1) to 400 cm(-1)) reflectance infrared spectra were collected for each meteorite. Spectral features due to the fundamental lattice vibrations of the silicates, primarily enstatite, dominate the spectra of these meteorites over most of the spectral range investigated. The spectral features related to primary (i.e., pre-terrestrial) mineralogy include fundamental stretching and bending lattice modes (similar to 8.3-25.0 mu m; 1200-400 cm(-1)), overtones and combinations of the fundamental modes (similar to 4.5-6.1 mu m; 2200-1650 cm(-1)), and the principle Christensen feature (similar to 8.3 mu m; 1200 cm(-1)). Terrestrial weathering products including Fe-oxyhydroxides, gypsum, and carbonates occur in most of these meteorites and contribute to some spectral features: particularly an asymmetric feature near similar to 2.6 to 3.8 mu m (3800 to 2600 cm(-1)) attributed to adsorbed, hydrogen-bonded, and/or structural OH and H2O, and a feature near similar to 6.2 mu m (1625 cm(-1)) attributed to adsorbed, hydrogen-bonded, and/or structural H2O. Modal mineral abundances determined by Rietveld refinement have been used to calculate model grain densities for each meteorite. Bulk magnetic susceptibility measurements combined with modal mineralogy and grain densities reveal a trend toward lower grain density and lower bulk susceptibility with increased terrestrial weathering.

    DOI: 10.1029/2009JE003452

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  • Mineralogical and spectroscopic investigation of the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite by X-ray diffraction and infrared reflectance spectroscopy 査読

    Matthew R. M. Izawa, Roberta L. Flemming, Penelope L. King, Ron C. Peterson, Phil J. A. McCausland

    METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE   45 ( 4 )   675 - 698   2010年4月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    We have carried out a sample-correlated spectroscopic and mineralogical investigation of samples from seven different collection sites of the Tagish Lake C2 chondrite. Rietveld refinement of high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data was used to determine quantitative major mineral abundances. Thermal infrared (400-4500 cm-1, 2.2-25.0 mu m) spectra of the same samples were obtained using diffuse (biconical) reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Our results are in good agreement with previous studies of the mineralogy of the Tagish Lake meteorite; we find however that Tagish Lake is more varied in major mineralogy than has previously been reported. In particular, we observed two new distinct lithologies, an inclusion-poor magnetite- and sulfide-rich lithology, and a carbonate-rich, siderite-dominated lithology in addition to the previously documented carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor lithologies. Grain density for each Tagish Lake sample was calculated from the measured mineral modal abundances and known mineral densities. For powders from three originally intact inclusion-rich samples, the calculated grain density is 2.77 +/- 0.05 g cm-3, in excellent agreement with those reported in the literature for other intact inclusion-rich Tagish Lake samples. Tagish Lake disaggregated samples have a significantly higher calculated grain density due to their lower saponite-serpentine content, likely a result of mineral separation in the meltwater holes from which they were collected; the disaggregated samples may not therefore adequately represent bulk samples of the Tagish Lake meteorite. The predominance of very fine-grained material in the Tagish Lake samples investigated in this study is expected to produce infrared spectra representative of asteroidal regolith. Gypsum and talc have been found by XRD in powders from the inclusion-rich, intact Tagish Lake samples in this study, and may have been present in the parent body; if present, these hydrous sulfates would complicate the interpretation of possible hydrated mineral features in asteroid infrared spectra.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1945-5100.2010.01043.x

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  • Basaltic glass as a habitat for microbial life: Implications for astrobiology and planetary exploration 査読

    M. R. M. Izawa, N. R. Banerjee, R. L. Flemming, N. J. Bridge, C. Schultz

    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE   58 ( 4 )   583 - 591   2010年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    Recent studies have demonstrated that terrestrial subaqueous basalts and hyaloclastites are suitable microbial habitats. During subaqueous basaltic volcanism, glass is produced by the quenching of basaltic magma upon contact with water. On Earth, microbes rapidly begin colonizing the glassy surfaces along fractures and cracks that have been exposed to water. Microbial colonization of basaltic glass leads to the alteration and modification of the rocks and produces characteristic granular and/or tubular bioalteration textures. Infilling of the alteration textures by minerals such as phyllosilicates, zeolites and titanite may enable their preservation through geologic time. Basaltic rocks are a major component of the Martian crust and are widespread on other solar system bodies. A variety of lines of evidence strongly suggests the long-term existence of abundant liquid water on ancient Mars. Recent orbiter, lander and rover missions have found evidence for the presence of transient liquid water on Mars, perhaps persisting to the present day. Many other solar system bodies, notably Europa. Enceladus and other icy satellites, may contain (or have once hosted) subaqueous basaltic glasses. The record of terrestrial glass bioalteration has been interpreted to extend as far back as similar to 3.5 billion years ago and is widespread in oceanic crust and its metamorphic equivalents. The terrestrial record of glass bioalteration strongly suggests that glassy or formerly glassy basaltic rocks on extraterrestrial bodies that have interacted with liquid water are high-value targets for astrobiological exploration. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.014

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  • Lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) as scientific tools for planetary exploration 査読

    Gordon R. Osinski, Timothy D. Barfoot, Nadeem Ghafoor, Matt Izawa, Neil Banerjee, Piotr Jasiobedzki, Jeff Tripp, Robert Richards, Simon Auclair, Haley Sapers, Laura Thomson, Roberta Flemming

    PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE   58 ( 4 )   691 - 700   2010年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD  

    With the continued success of the Mars Exploration Rovers and the return of humans to the Moon within the next decade, a considerable amount of research is being done on the technologies required to provide surface mobility and the tools required to provide scientific capability. Here, we explore the utility of lidar and the mobile Scene Modeler (mSM) - which is based on a stereo camera system - as scientific tools. Both of these technologies have been, or are being considered for, technological applications such as autonomous satellite rendezvous and rover navigation. We carried out a series of field tests at the 23 km diameter, 39 Ma, Haughton impact structure located on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic. Several sites of geological interest were investigated, including polygonal terrain, gullies and channels, slump/collapse features, impact melt breccia hills, and a site of impact-associated hydrothermal mineralization. These field tests show that lidar and mSM provide a superior visual record of the terrain, from the regional (km) to outcrop (m to cm) scale and in 3-D, as compared to standard digital photography. Thus, a key strength of these technologies is in situ reconnaissance and documentation. Lidar scans also provide a wealth of geometric and structural information about a site, accomplishing the equivalent of weeks to months of manual surveying and with much greater accuracy than traditional tools, making this extremely useful for planetary exploration missions. An unexpected result of these field tests is the potential for lidar and mSM to provide qualitative, and potentially quantitative, composition information about a site. Given the high probability of lidar and mSM being used on future lunar missions, we suggest that it would be beneficial to further investigate the potential for these technologies to be used as science tools. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.08.004

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  • Mineralogy and Spectroscopy of the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite, and enstatite chondrites 査読

    Matthew Izawa

    University of Western Ontario   2008年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:学位論文(修士)  

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  • Validation of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) version 2.2 temperature using ground-based and space-borne measurements 査読

    R. J. Sica, M. R. M. Izawa, K. A. Walker, C. Boone, S. V. Petelina, P. S. Argall, P. Bernath, G. P. Burns, V. Catoire, R. L. Collins, W. H Daffer, C. De Clerq, Z. Y. Fan, B. J. Firanski, W. J. R. French, P. Gerard, M. Gerding, J. Granville, J. L. Innes, P. Keckhut, T. Kerzenmacher, A. R. Klekociuk, J. C. Lambert, E. J. Llewellyn, G. L. Manney, I. S. McDermid, K. Mizutani, Y. Murayama, C. Piccolo, C. Robert, W. Steinbrecht, K. A. Strawbridge, K. Strong, R. Stübi, B. Thurairajah

    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics   8   12463 - 12539   2008年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Validation of water vapour profiles from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) 査読

    M. R. Carleer, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, K. Strong, R. J. Sica, C. E. Randall, H. Vömel, J. Kar, M. Höpfner, M. Milz, T. von Clarmann, R. Kivi, J. Valverde-Canossa, C. E. Sioris, M. R. M. Izawa, E. Dupuy, C. T. McElroy, J. R. Drummond, C. R. Nowlan, J. Zou, F. Nichitiu, S. Lossow, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, D. G. Dufour

    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions   8   4499 - 4559   2008年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Laser spectroscopic measurements of hyperfine structure in PrII 査読

    RC Rivest, MR Izawa, SD Rosner, TJ Scholl, G Wu, RA Holt

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS   80 ( 5 )   557 - 562   2002年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA  

    We have used fast-ion-beam laser spectroscopy to measure the hyperfine structure of 36 transitions in Pr II in the wavelength range 420-460 nm, obtaining the hyperfine constants of 8 odd-parity levels in the range 0-5079 cm(-1) and 32 even-parity levels in the range 22 040-28 578 cm(-1) with a typical accuracy of 0.2%. These will find useful application in stellar elemental abundance studies.

    DOI: 10.1139/P02-009

    Web of Science

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  • Measurement of Radiative Lifetimes in Nd II 査読

    C. M. Pinciuc, R. C. Rivest, M. R. M. Izawa, R. A. Holt, S. D. Rosner, T. J. Scholl

    Canadian Journal of Physics   79   1159 - 1167   2001年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1139/cjp-79-9-1159

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受賞

  • NASA group achievement award

    2017年6月   National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)   MSL extended mission-1 science and operations team

    Matthew Izawa

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